Ward-Jackson, English Furniture Designs of the Eighteenth Century
(London: Victoria & Albert Museum, 1958), p. 3.
2. For more on Buckland, see Rosamond
Randall Beirne and John Henry Scarff, William Buckland, 17341774:
Architect of Virginia and Maryland (Baltimore: Maryland Historical
Society, 1958); William Voss Elder, III, The Adams-Kilty House in
Annapolis, Maryland Historical Magazine 60 (September 1965):
31424; Elizabeth Brand Monroe, William Buckland in the Northern
Neck, M.A. thesis, University of Virginia, 1975; Barbara A. Brand,
The Work of William Buckland in Maryland, 17711774,
M.A. thesis, George Washington University, 1978; and Luke Beckerdite,
William Buckland and William Bernard Sears: The Designer and the
Carver, Journal of Early Southern Decorative Arts 8, no.
2 (November 1982): 641; William Buckland Reconsidered: Architectural
Carving in Chesapeake Maryland, 17711774, Journal of Early
Southern Decorative Arts 8, no. 2 (November 1982): 4288; and
William Buckland Reconsidered: Architectural Carving in Virginia
and Maryland, 17551775, M.A. thesis, Wake Forest University,
1985. Beckerdite refutes several attributions made by other authors.
3. Beirne and Scarff, William Buckland, p. 1. Joiners
Company Register of Apprentice Bindings, 6:47v, Guildhall Library, London.
For more on the Palladians and furniture design, see Michael I. Wilson,
William Kent, Architect, Designer, Painter, Gardner, 16851748
(London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1984); and Ward-Jackson, English
Furniture Designs, pp. 7, 8.
4. For more on early rococo designs, see Ward-Jackson,
English Furniture Designs, pp. 13, 14, 3840; Morrison H. Heckscher,
Lock and Copland: A Catalogue of the Engraved Ornament, Furniture
History 15 (1979): 123, and pls. 167B; and Elizabeth White,
comp., Pictorial History of British 18th Century Furniture Design:
The Printed Sources (Woodbridge, Suffolk: Antique Collectors
Club, 1990), pp. 38, 39. For more on Chippendale, see Christopher Gilbert,
The Life and Work of Thomas Chippendale (New York: MacMillian Co.,
5. Indenture between William Buckland and Thomson Mason,
August 4, 1755, George Mason Papers, Gunston Hall Plantation, Mason Neck,
Virginia. Alexandria Gazette and Daily Advertiser, September 4,
1817. As quoted in Beirne and Scarff, William Buckland, pp. 25,
6. Paines Plan, Elevation, &. Section
of a Gothic Temple is reproduced in White, Pictorial History,
7. Frederick D. Nichols, The Importance of William
Buckland, Buckland: Master Builder of the 18th Century (Mason
Neck, Va.: Regents of Gunston Hall, 1977), pp. 89. Batty Langleys
The City and Country Builders and Workmans Treasury of
Designs (London, 1740), pl. 75. The author thanks John Bivins for
the Langley references. Bucklands inventory listed Gibbs Designs
(James Gibbs, Book of Architecture ), The London Art
(William Salmon, Palladio Londonensis, or the London Art of Building
[1734, enlarged ed. 1738]), Hopuss Measurer (Edward
Hoppus, The Practical Measurer ), Langleys Gothic
Architecture and Essay on ditto (Batty Langley,
Gothic Architecture , and probably The City and Country Builders
and Workmans Treasury of Designs ), Swans British
Treasury, Architect, and Carpenters Instruction
(Abraham Swan, The British Architect; or The Builders Treasury
of Staircases , A Collection of Designs in Architecture ,
and Designs in Carpentry ), Wares Designs
(Isaac Ware, A Complete Body of Architecture , Chippendales
Designs (Thomas Chippendale, The Gentleman and Cabinet-Makers
Director [1754, 1755]), Johnsons Carvers Designs
(Thomas Johnson, One Hundred & Fifty New Designs ), Lightholders
Designs (Thomas Lightoler, The Gentleman & Farmers
Architect , or William Halfpenny, Thomas Lightoler, and Robert
Morris, The Modern Builders Assistant ), and an unidentified
volume by Robert Morris (An Inventory of the Goods and Chattels
of William Buckland, 1777, Anne Arundel County Inventories, 125:337).
8. William Halfpennys New Designs for Chinese
Temples, Triumphal Arches, Garden Seats, Palings &c. (1750).
An Inventory of the Goods and Chattels of William Buckland.
9. The earliest description of Brents account is
in Berine and Scarff, William Buckland, p. 37. Beirne and Scarffs
footnote for the suit (Richmond County Order Book 15, July 17631764,
f. 293) is an incorrect citation for the original order book entry
of July 6, 1763 (Richmond County Court Order Book 15, pp. 14344,
Richmond County Court House, Warsaw, Virginia). Moreover, the authors
footnote is for a brief order book entry rather than for the detailed
account that they describe in William Buckland. Accounts and other
forms of evidence exhibited in court are separate from the order books
and are stored unbound under the heading court papers. I have
been unable to locate the detailed account described in William Buckland,
but a handwritten transcript is in the Beirne and Scarff personal notes
(William Buckland Manuscripts, Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore)
and appears to have been traced from the original account. Brents
account of time against Buckland (£50.6.81/2) and other enumerated
expenses totaled £58.2.81/2. The grand total after subtracting debits
(£36.9.8) and adding interest (£1.4.5) was £15.17.5,
which the Richmond County Court awarded him on March 5, 1765 (Richmond
County Court Order Book 15, p. 387). Further indications of the accuracy
of Beirne and Scarffs copy is a debit entry in Brents account,
To Cash pd. Charles Hammond 59/6£2.19.6 (Buckland
Manuscripts). On October 3, 1763, James Hunter & Co. sued Buckland
for £3.1.11 (Richmond County Court Order Book 15, p. 183). As evidence
Hunter & Co. presented Charles Hammonds account, which had a
June 10, 1762, entry, To Cred. James Brent£2.19.6 (Richmond
County Court Papers, 1763). The quote regarding Sears passage to
Virginia is in Susan A. Plaskett, Memories of a Plain Family, 18361936
(Washington: Franklin Press, 1936), p. 16. This oral history reportedly
passed from Charles Lee Sears to Plasketts mother. Alexandria
Herald, May 4, 1818.
10. The chair is marked IV on the front seat rail and
is probably from a set of six or more. Thomas Chippendale, The Gentleman
and Cabinet-Makers Director (1754; reprinted, London: J. Haberkorn,
1755), pl. 25. The first and second editions (1754, 1755) generally contain
the same plates. The 1762 edition varies considerably.
11. Chippendale, Director (1755), pls. 2125.
12. Although aspects of the joinery are crude (e.g.,
heavily undercut stretcher tenons), in many respects the chair is overbuilt.
The seat rail tenons are unusually large, and they are secured with enormous
13. The author thanks John Bivins and Susan Bourchardt
for information on the canopies. Mr. Bivins made copies of the now-missing
canopies, substituting pagoda-shaped hoods for those shown in the photograph.
For more on the display of ornamental ceramics, see Anna Somers Cocks,
The Nonfunctional Use of Ceramics in the English Country House During
the Eighteenth Century, in Gervase Jackson-Stops, Gordon J. Schochet,
Lena Cowen Orlin, and Elisabeth Blair MacDougall, eds., The Fashioning
and Functioning of the British Country House (Washington: Distributed
by the University Press of New England for the National Gallery of Art,
1989), pp. 105215.
14. Buckland Indenture. Pohick Church, Minutes of
the Vestry: Truro Parish Virginia, 17321785 (Annandale, Va.:
Baptie Studios, 1974), p. 82. Estate Papers of John Ferguson, Fairfax
County Will Book B-1, 17521767, p. 357.
15. Accompanying Buckland were his wife, Mary Moore,
and their daughter Mary. The date of their marriage is unknown, but their
daughter was born on September 3, 1758 (Nichols, Buckland: Master Builder,
p. 9). Buckland sporadically purchased provisions from Tayloe through
August 23, 1768 (Account Book-Letterbook of Stephen Loyde ,
Account Book-Letterbook of John Tayloe , Account Book-Letterbook
of John Tayloe [17211799, 17171778], Virginia Historical Society,
Richmond). For more on Mt. Airy, see Thomas T. Waterman, The Mansions
of Virginia, 17061776 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina
Press, 1945), pp. 25361. The author thanks Marc Winger for information
on the original interior plan of Mt. Airy. Only one entry for Buckland
in Tayloes account book dates after November 1764 (Account Book-Letterbooks
of Lloyd, Tayloe, and Tayloe). John Tayloe provided security for Buckland
in two lawsuits, one in 1763 (John Tarpley vs. William Buckland, July
6, 1763, Richmond County Court Order Book 15, p. 143) and another in 1764
(Hugh Walker vs. William Buckland, September 4, 1764, Richmond
County Court Order Book 15, p. 312).
16. The author thanks Morrison Heckscher for calling
the pier table to his attention.
17. The sideboard table is illustrated in all three editions
of Chippendales Director. Buckland also used an intersecting
circular fret on the door entablatures in the dining room
of the Chase-Lloyd house in Annapolis.
18. Thomas Chippendale, The Gentleman and Cabinet-Makers
Director, 3d ed. (1762; reprinted, New York: Dover, 1966), p. 8. Although
the leg blocks are secured with eighteenth-century wrought finish nails,
microscopy by Colonial Williamsburg furniture conservator Cary Howlett
indicates that the blocks and table have slightly different finish histories.
John Bivins conserved the sideboard table in 1983.
19. Antiques 43, no. 3 (March 1943): 142.
20. Chippendale, Director (1755), pl. 17.
21. Wallace Nutting, Furniture Treasury, 2 vols.
(Framingham, Ma.: Old American Co., 1928), 1: pl. 774. The author thanks
Charles Phillips for this reference.
22. John Orr vs. William Bernard Sears, April
8, 1765, Loudoun County Court Order Book B, 17621765, p. 8. William
Beard vs. William Bernard Sears, September 11, 1766, Loudoun
County Court Order Book C, 17651767, p. 195. Summons for William
Bernard Sears, Thomas Sorrell, and John Lewis, August 8, 1768, Loudoun
County Court Order Book D, 17671770, p. 93. Randall Indenture, April
2, 1765, Richmond County Deed Book 12, p. 611. Richmond County indentures
frequently were recorded in deed books and proven later in court. Randalls
indenture was proven on May 6, 1765 (Richmond County Court Order Book
15, p. 404). Beirne and Scarff stated that Buckland took Randall as an
apprentice in 1763 (Beirne and Scarff, Buckland, p. 44); however,
I was unable to locate corroborating evidence. Memorandum Book of Robert
Wormley Carter, February 6, 1766, folder 19, Carter Family Papers, Manuscript
Department, Earl Gregg Swem Library, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg.
John Tayloe to Landon Carter, January 3, 1768, folder 2, Carter Family
Papers. William Buckland to Robert Carter, March 25, 1771, Carter Family
Papers, Virginia Historical Society, Richmond. The earliest reference
to Buckland working in Maryland is November 1771 (Account between
Edward Lloyd and James McCubbin, November 1771, William Cooke Papers,
Maryland Historical Society). Edward Lloyd purchased Samuel Chases
unfinished house in July 1771 (James Bordley, Jr., New Light on
William Buckland, Maryland Historical Magazine 46 [June 1951]:
15354). The tradesmen who accompanied Buckland to Annapolis were
joiners John Ariss Callis, John Randall, and Samuel Bailey, and probably
the carver Thomas Hall. Callis described himself as a resident of Annapolis
in a letter of attorney to Richmond County lawyer, Benjamin Branham (John
Ariss Callis to Benjamin Branham, recorded November 7, 1772, Richmond
County Court Order Book 17, p. 527). Both Randall and Bailey are listed
in Bucklands inventory (Anne Arundel County Inventories, 125:337).
A carver named Thomas Hall ran away from Buckland in December 1773 (Maryland
Gazette, December 16, 1773). Hall probably was the London carver mentioned
in Bucklands letter to Robert Carter (William Buckland to Robert
Carter, March 25, 1771).
23. William Buckland to Benjam Branham, recorded November
7, 1772, Richmond County Deed Book 13, pp. 45759. Maryland Gazette,
December 15, 1774. Several items listed in Bucklands estate inventory
reveal that his Annapolis shop made furniture:
white Picture frame
2 ditto blacked
5 Table frames @ 4/ Each
1 Small Picture frame part finished
Anne Arundel County Inventories, 125:337. No
furniture from Bucklands Annapolis shop is known.