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Joshua W. Lane and Donald P. White III
Fashioning Furniture and Framing Community: Woodworkers and the Rise of a Connecticut River Valley Town

American Furniture 2005

Full Article
Contents
  • Figure 1
    Figure 1

    Edward Wells, A New Map of the Most Considerable Plantations of the English in America, Oxford, England, 1700–1730. Engraving with watercolor on paper. 13 11/16" x 18 5/8". (Courtesy, Historic Deerfield, Inc., Albert and June Lauzon Collection, gift of Mrs. June Lauzon.)

  • Figure 2
    Figure 2

    Thomas Cole, The Oxbow, 1836. Oil on canvas. 51 1/2" x 76". (Courtesy, Metropolitan Museum of Art, gift of Mrs. Russell Sage, 1908.)

  • Figure 3
    Figure 3

    Detail of the tulip-and-leaf decoration on the chest illustrated in fig. 5. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 4
    Figure 4

    Detail of the carved center panel of the chest illustrated in fig. 63. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)
     

  • Figure 5
    Figure 5

    Chest, Hatfield or Hadley, Massachusetts, 1715–1720. Soft maple, chestnut, and oak with white pine. H. 44 3/4", W. 45 5/8", D. 19 7/8". (Courtesy, Historic Deerfield, Inc., gift of Dr. Ogden B. Carter Jr.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The paint is not original. 
     

  • Figure 6
    Figure 6

    Cupboard, Hartford County, Connecticut, ca. 1680. Red oak, white oak, white pine, cedar, poplar, and maple. H. 56", W. 49 1/4", D. 20 5/16". (Courtesy, Yale University Art Gallery, gift of Charles Wyllys Betts.)

  • Figure 7
    Figure 7

    Detail of Tobias Conrad Letter, A Map of the Most Inhabited Part of New England, Augsburg, Germany, 1776. Engraving with watercolor wash on paper. 39 1/2" x 42". (Courtesy, Historic Deerfield, Inc.) This map was based on another map drawn by Braddock Mead (alias John Green) and published by Thomas Jefferys, London, 1755.

  • Figure 8
    Figure 8

    Detail of the map illustrated in fig. 1.

  • Figure 9
    Figure 9

    Embroidery patterns illustrated in Giovanni Andre Valvassore’s Esemplario di lavrio (Venice, 1552) and Giovanni Ostaus’s Vera perfettiono del desegno (Venice, 1557). (Private collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 10
    Figure 10

    Elizabeth White, sampler, Hatfield, Massachusetts, before 1688. Wool on linen. 13 3/4" x 6 3/4". (Courtesy, Historic Deerfield, Inc.)

  • Figure 11
    Figure 11

    Chest attributed to Thomas Barber Sr., Windsor, Connecticut, 1640–1662. Oak with yellow pine and oak. H. 23 3/4", W. 54", D. 23 1/4". (Courtesy, Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association, gift of Mrs. Catherine W. Hoyt; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The stiles have been shortened and the lid and till are missing.
     

  • Figure 12
    Figure 12

    Detail of the carving on the façade of the chest illustrated in fig. 11. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 13
    Figure 13

    Chest attributed to Thomas Barber Jr., Windsor or Simsbury, Connecticut, ca. 1662. Oak with yellow pine and oak. H. 28 5/8", W. 55 1/2", D. 24 1/4". (Courtesy, Connecticut Historical Society; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 14
    Figure 14

    Detail showing a spline used to join the lid boards of the chest illustrated in fig. 13. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 15
    Figure 15

    Detail of the carving on the left stile of the chest illustrated in fig. 13, showing the tessellated trefoil found in the same locations on all examples attributed to the Barber shop. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 16
    Figure 16

    Detail showing the carving on the upper rail and molding on the muntins and lid of the chest illustrated in fig. 13. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 18
    Figure 18

    Box attributed to Thomas Barber Sr., Windsor, Connecticut, before 1663. Oak. H. 4 3/8", W. 8 5/8", D. 5 1/4". (Private collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The lock is missing. 
     

  • Figure 19
    Figure 19

    Detail showing the waxed linen lining on the bottom board of the box illustrated in fig. 18. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 20
    Figure 20

    Back of the box illustrated in fig. 18. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth).

  • Figure 21
    Figure 21

    Detail showing the carving on the inner surface of the lid of the box illustrated in fig. 18. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 22
    Figure 22

    Box attributed to Thomas Barber Sr., Windsor, Connecticut, before 1663. Woods and dimensions not recorded. (Wallace Nutting, Furniture Treasury, 2 vols. [Framingham, Mass.: Old America Co., 1928], 1: fig. 163.)
     

  • Figure 23
    Figure 23

    Box attributed to William Buell, Windsor, Connecticut, 1640–1681. Oak with pine. H. 8 1/2", W. 27", D. 18". (Courtesy, Oneida Historical Society, Utica, NY.)

  • Figure 25
    Figure 25

    Chest, Windsor or Killingworth, Connecticut, ca. 1660. Woods and dimensions not recorded. (Luke Vincent Lockwood, Colonial Furniture in America, 2 vols. [New York: Castle Books, 1921], 1: 27, fig. 11.)

  • Figure 26
    Figure 26

    Box, Windsor or Killingworth, Connecticut, ca. 1660. Woods and dimensions not recorded. (Wallace Nutting, Furniture Treasury, 2 vols. [Framingham, Mass.: Old America Co., 1928], 1: fig. 158.)

  • Figure 27
    Figure 27

    Chest, Windsor, Connecticut, before 1662. Woods and dimensions not recorded. (Luke Vincent Lockwood, Colonial Furniture in America, 2 vols. [New York: Castle Books, 1921], 1: 27, fig. 10.)

  • Figure 28
    Figure 28

    Chest, Windsor, Connecticut, ca. 1660. Oak. H. 24 1/2", W. 48 1/4", D. 19 3/4". (Private collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The lid and floor boards are replacements.

  • Figure 29
    Figure 29

    Detail showing the cross section of the left front stile of the chest illustrated in fig. 28. (Private collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 30
    Figure 30

    Great chair, Windsor, Connecticut, ca. 1660. Oak. H. 47 1/2", W. 23 5/8", D. 17 3/4". (Courtesy, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, gift of Aimee and Rosamond Lamb.) The feet, stretchers, and seat are replacements, and the paint is modern.

  • Figure 31
    Figure 31

    Chest attributed to John Rockwell III, Windsor, Connecticut, ca. 1700. Yellow pine and oak with yellow pine. H. 27", W. 49", D. 18". (Courtesy, Historic Deerfield, Inc., gift of Thomas C. Frary in memory of Margery Collins Frary.)

  • Figure 34
    Figure 34

    Chest attributed to John Rockwell I or John Rockwell II, Windsor, Connecticut, ca. 1660. Oak. H. 27", W. 48", D. 19 3/4". (Courtesy, Yale University Art Gallery, Mabel Brady Garvan Collection.) The white pine lid is a replacement.

  • Figure 35
    Figure 35

    Chest attributed to John Rockwell I or John Rockwell II, Windsor, Connecticut, ca. 1660. Oak. H. 26 1/4", W. 48 1/2", D. 20 1/2". (Private collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The lid is a replacement.

  • Figure 36
    Figure 36

    Detail of the chest illustrated in fig. 35, showing the angled convex molding and incised chevrons on the muntins of the façade.

  • Figure 37
    Figure 37

    Chest, probably Hartford County, Connecticut, ca. 1720. Tulip poplar. H. 23", W. 46", D. 17 1/2". (Private collection; photo, Nathan Liverant & Son Antiques, Inc.)

  • Figure 38
    Figure 38

    Box attributed to John Moore I, Windsor, Connecticut, ca. 1670. Oak with yellow pine. H. 8 1/2", W. 29", D. 15 1/2". (Courtesy, Metropolitan Museum of Art, gift of Mrs. Russell Sage.)

  • Figure 39
    Figure 39

    Detail showing the notch cut in the upper inside face of the back board of the box illustrated in fig. 38. 

  • Figure 41
    Figure 41

    Table attributed to John Moore II or John Moore III, Windsor, Connecticut, ca. 1680. Oak. H. 31", W. 70", D. 32 3/4". (Courtesy, Connecticut Historical Society, gift of Harold G. Holcombe; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The top, pendants, and most of the brackets are replacements.

  • Figure 42
    Figure 42

    Detail of an end rail of the table illustrated in fig. 41, showing a flower head design laid out with gouge strikes. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 43
    Figure 43

    Chest attributed to Nathaniel Gaylord, Windsor, Connecticut, ca. 1680. Oak with yellow pine. H. 30 3/4", W. 46", D. 18 7/8". (Courtesy, Old Sturbridge Village; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 44
    Figure 44

    Detail showing the layout lines and carving on the drawer and façade rails of the chest illustrated in fig. 43. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 45
    Figure 45

    Chest, Windsor, Connecticut, ca. 1670. Oak with pine. H. 38 1/2", W. 44 3/4", D. 19 1/2". (Wallace Nutting, Furniture Treasury, 2 vols. [Framingham, Mass.: Old America Co., 1928], 1: fig. 11.)

  • Figure 46
    Figure 46

    Box, Windsor, Connecticut, 1670–1710. Oak. H. 8 5/8", W. 30 3/8", D. 15 7/8". (Courtesy, Windsor Historical Society, loan of Grace Episcopal Church.) The lid and bottom board are replacements.

  • Figure 47
    Figure 47

    Box, Windsor, Connecticut, 1670–1710. H. 9", W. 28 1/2", D. 15 1/4". Oak with pine. (Courtesy, Farmer’s Museum, Inc.)

  • Figure 49
    Figure 49

    Box attributed to Jacob Drake, Windsor, Connecticut, ca. 1680. Oak. H. 9 5/8", W. 24 4/1", D. 20 1/4". (Private collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The hinges are replaced, and the paint may be a modern recreation of the original scheme.

  • Figure 50
    Figure 50

    Box, Windsor, Connecticut, ca. 1670. Oak. H. 9 ", W. 241/2", D. 18 7/8". (Courtesy, Antiquarian and Landmarks Society, Inc.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 51
    Figure 51

    Box, probably Springfield, Massachusetts, ca. 1700. Oak with yellow pine. H. 9 1/4", W. 25 1/4", D. 16 1/4". (Courtesy, Historic Deerfield, Inc.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 53
    Figure 53

    Chest attributed to Thomas Dennis, Ipswich, Massachusetts, 1676. Red and white oak. H. 31 11/16", W. 49 5/8", D. 22 5/8". (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum.)

  • Figure 54
    Figure 54

    Chest, probably Suffield, Connecticut, ca. 1730. Woods and dimensions not recorded. (Clair Franklin Luther, The Hadley Chest [Hartford, Conn.: Case, Lockwood & Brainard Co., 1935], p. 103, no. 62.

  • Figure 56
    Figure 56

    Chest attributed to Aaron Cook, Windsor, Connecticut, or Northampton, Massachusetts, ca. 1660. Oak with yellow pine. H. 28", W. 56 1/2", D. 20". (Courtesy, Historic Deerfield, Inc.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The drawer is missing.

  • Figure 57
    Figure 57

    Chest, Windsor, Connecticut, or Hampshire County, Massachusetts, ca. 1680. Oak with yellow pine. H. 30 1/4", W. 47", D. 18". (Courtesy, Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association, gift of James A. Reed; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The drawer is missing.

  • Figure 58
    Figure 58

    Chest, Windsor, Connecticut, or Hampshire County, Massachusetts, ca. 1680. Oak with yellow pine. H. 30 1/4", W. 47", D. 18". (Courtesy, Historic Deerfield, Inc.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The lid and lock are replacements.

  • Figure 59
    Figure 59

    Chest, Windsor, Connecticut, or Hampshire County, Massachusetts, ca. 1680. Oak with yellow pine. H. 26 1/4", W. 51", D. 20 1/2". (Courtesy, Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association, gift of Mary Wright Davis; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The drawer is missing.

  • Figure 61
    Figure 61

    Chest, Windsor, Connecticut, or Northampton, Massachusetts, ca. 1680. Yellow pine. Dimensions not recorded. (Courtesy, 
    Antiquarian and Landmarks Society, Inc.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) 

  • Figure 62
    Figure 62

    Chest attributed to Thomas Stoughton III or Thomas Stoughton IV, Windsor, Connecticut, ca. 1680. Oak with yellow pine. H. 39 1/2", W. 45 3/4", D. 19 3/4". (Courtesy, Connecticut Historical Society, gift of Thaddeus Mather; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 63
    Figure 63

    Chest attributed to Thomas Stoughton III or Thomas Stoughton IV, Windsor, Connecticut, ca. 1680. Oak with yellow pine. H. 41", W. 48", D. 20". (Courtesy, Historic Deerfield, Inc.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The lid has been altered.

  • Figure 64
    Figure 64

    Chest attributed to John Thurston, Dedham or Medfield, Massachusetts, 1660–1685. Oak with pine. H. 31 3/8", W. 47 3/4", D. 21". (Courtesy, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.)

  • Figure 66
    Figure 66

    Box attributed to Thomas Stoughton IV, Windsor, Connecticut, ca. 1695. Oak and yellow pine with yellow pine. H. 7 1/2", W. 29", D. 17 1/2". (Private collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 67
    Figure 67

    Detail showing the lid, cleats, and till of the box illustrated in fig. 66. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 68
    Figure 68

    Detail of the carving on the box illustrated in fig. 66. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Fgure 69
    Fgure 69

    Chest attributed to Daniel White Jr., probably Hatfield, Massachusetts, ca. 1710. Maple with yellow pine. H. 45 1/4", W. 43 1/2", D. 19 3/4". (Courtesy, Wadsworth Atheneum, Wallace Nutting Collection, gift of J. Pierpont Morgan, by exchange and the Evelyn Bonar Storrs Trust Fund.)

  • Figure 71
    Figure 71

    Frederic Edwin Church, Hooker and Company Journeying through the Wilderness, from Plymouth to Hartford, in 1636, 1846. Oil on canvas. 40 1/4" x 60 3/16". (Courtesy, Wadsworth Atheneum, Museum purchase.)