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Meta F. Janowitz
New York City Stonewares from the African Burial Ground

Ceramics in America 2008

Full Article
Contents
  • Figure 1
    Figure 1

    Detail of F. Maerschalck’s Plan of New York from an Actual Survey, Anno Domini M, DCC, LV (depicted 1754; issued 1755) showing the Foley Square project area. (Photo, courtesy John Milner Associates.) The original is in the collection of the New-York Historical Society; it is reproduced in I. N. Phelps Stokes, The Iconography of Manhattan Island, 1498–1909, 6 vols. (1915–1928; Union, N.J.: Lawbook Exchange, 1998), vol. 1, The Period of Discovery (1524–1609), pl. 34.

  • Figure 2
    Figure 2

    Jar, Clarkson Crolius, New York, New York, ca. 1800–1814. Stoneware. H. 18". Mark: “C. CROLIUS / MANUFACTURER / MANHATTAN-WELLS / NEW-YORK” (New York State Museum; photo, Rob Tucher.) This jar was excavated from an early-nineteenth-century context at the Barclays Bank site. The maker’s mark is stamped on one side, and an incised floral motif is on the other. Both are filled in with blue.

  • Figure 3
    Figure 3

    Jar, Clarkson Crolius, 1800–1814. Stoneware, cobalt oxide. H. 11", D. 7 1/2", Mark: stamped on shoulder, “C. CROLIUS / MANHATTAN-WELLS / NEW-YORK” (Courtesy, New-York Historical Society, 1937.808.) Two variations of the “floral moosehead” motif, joined by a blue band, surround this Crolius jug.

  • Figure 4
    Figure 4

    Contemporary advertisement for Corzelius Pottery, Hohr-Grenzhausen, Germany, 2003. (Photo, Meta Janowitz.)

  • Figure 5
    Figure 5

    Jug fragment, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, Rob Tucher.)

  • Figure 6
    Figure 6

    Jar fragment with spiral motif, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, John Milner Associates.) This sherd was destroyed when the World Trade Center collapsed on September 11, 2001. 

  • Figure 7
    Figure 7

    Jar fragments, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, John Abbott.) Note the spiral motif on this underfired small-mouthed jar. 

  • Figure 8
    Figure 8

    Rounded porringers, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, Joseph Balicki.) The vessel at right was covered with a brown slip. These were destroyed when the World Trade Center collapsed on September 11, 2001. 

  • Figure 9
    Figure 9

    Slant-sided porringer, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, Joseph Balicki.) This porringer was destroyed when the World Trade Center collapsed on September 11, 2001.

  • Figure 10
    Figure 10

    Tankard fragments, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, Rob Tucher.)

  • Figure 11
    Figure 11

    Tankard fragments, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, John Abbott.) These underfired sherds have an incised and cobalt-filled motif.

  • Figure 12
    Figure 12

    Dish or shallow bowl fragments, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) These sherds show brushed cobalt decoration over a brown slip.

  • Figure 13
    Figure 13

    Plate rim fragment with painted motif, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 14
    Figure 14

    Molded teapot spout, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 15
    Figure 15

    Jar rim fragment, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, John Abbott.) This represents the most common type of rim profile for jars. 

  • Figure 16
    Figure 16

    Jar rim fragments, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, John Abbott.) The assemblage here displays a variety of profiles.

  • Figure 17
    Figure 17

    Chamber pot rim fragment, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, John Abbott.) This sherd shows blue decoration around the handle attachment as well as on at least one side.

  • Figure 18
    Figure 18

    Small jug or round mug sherds, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, John Abbott.) The rat-tail handle attachments shown here are outlined in blue.

  • Figure 19
    Figure 19

    Handle fragments, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, John Abbott.) A variety of handle shapes is shown.

  • Figure 20
    Figure 20

    Ointment pot or test piece, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. Mark: incised on base, “IS” or “SI” (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, Rob Tucher.)

  • Figure 21
    Figure 21

    Sherds, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, Rob Tucher.) Almost all of the fragments in this group were decorated with variants of the spiral motif. They were destroyed when the World Trade Center collapsed on September 11, 2001.

  • Figure 22
    Figure 22

    Jug fragment, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, John Milner Associates.) These fragments, with a painted spiral motif and handle base encircled with a blue band, were destroyed when the World Trade Center collapsed on September 11, 2001.

  • Figure 23
    Figure 23

    Jar fragment with “spiral butterfly” motif, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, John Milner Associates.) This sherd was destroyed when the World Trade Center collapsed on September 11, 2001.

  • Figure 24
    Figure 24

    Sherds with cobalt spiral and notch decoration, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, John Abbott.) 

  • Figure  25
    Figure 25

    Jug fragment, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, John Milner Associates.) From this remnant we can see that the top half of the jug was covered in brown slip. The fragment was destroyed when the World Trade Center collapsed on September 11, 2001.

  • Figure 26
    Figure 26

    Jug fragment, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The fragment shown here displays brown slip and an unidentified incised motif.

  • Figure 27
    Figure 27

    Plate fragments, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) This unusual plate is decorated with a brown slip and an incised motif.

  • Figure 28
    Figure 28

    Sherds, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, Rob Tucher.) The sherds are decorated with incised and filled-in motifs.

  • Figure 29
    Figure 29

    Tankard fragment, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, John Abbott.) This piece shows an incised but uncolored motif and cordons filled in with blue.

  • Figure 30
    Figure 30

    Sherds, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, John Abbott.) 

  • Figure 31
    Figure 31

    Sherd, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, John Abbott.)

  • Figure 32
    Figure 32

    Small jar fragment, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, Rob Tucher.) The incised star motif is filled in with blue and a manganese slip. The fragment was destroyed when the World Trade Center collapsed on September 11, 2001.

  • Figure 33
    Figure 33

    Sherds, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photos: Rob Tucher, left; John Abbott, right.) These sherds are stamped and incised, and the motif is filled in with blue. Note the double stamping of the flower, which is very similar to the one used on the Barclays Bank jar illustrated in fig. 2.

  • Figure 34
    Figure 34

    Jug or mug fragment, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, John Abbott.) This sherd shows part of a sprigged GR medallion.

  • Figure 35
    Figure 35

    Sherd, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, Rob Tucher.) Based on comparisons to intact examples, the remaining sprigged motif on this sherd, which was destroyed on September 11, 2001, was part of a GR medallion.

  • Figure 36
    Figure 36

    Sherds with rouletted motifs, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, John Abbott.) 

  • Figure 37
    Figure 37

    Porringer fragments with diagonal rouletted motifs, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, John Abbott.) 

  • Figure 38
    Figure 38

    Jar fragment with rouletted motif, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, John Abbott.) 

  • Figure 39
    Figure 39

    Jug fragments with rouletted motifs, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, John Abbott.)

  • Figure 40
    Figure 40

    Chamber pot fragments with rouletted motifs, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, John Abbott.) 

  • Figure 41
    Figure 41

    Jug fragments, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, John Milner Associates.) These partially mended jug sherds have wide bands of rouletted motifs. All were destroyed when the World Trade Center collapsed on September 11, 2001.

  • Figure 42
    Figure 42

    Rim fragment with brown line, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, John Abbott.)

  • Figure 43
    Figure 43

    Rim and handle fragments with blue dots, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, John Abbott.) 

  • Figure 44
    Figure 44

    Sherds with interior brown slips, Crolius/Remmey families, Manhattan, New York, ca. 1720–1765. Stoneware. (African Burial Ground Collection; photo, John Abbott.) Note the variety of hues.