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Robert F. Trent, Peter Follansbee, and Alan Miller
First Flowers of the Wilderness: Mannerist Furniture from a Northern Essex County, Massachusetts, Shop

American Furniture 2001

Full Article
Contents
  • Figure 1
    Figure 1

    Chest of drawers, northern Essex County, Massachusetts, 1678. Oak, sycamore, maple, and tulip poplar with oak and sycamore. H. 42", W. 44 3/4", D. 19 7/8". (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum.)

  • Figure 2
    Figure 2

    Detail of the right large half-column on the chest of drawers illustrated in fig. 1.

  • Figure 3
    Figure 3

    Modern scratch-stock made by Philip Ruhl, Quakertown, Pennsylvania, 2000. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 4
    Figure 4

    Detail of the stopped moldings produced by a scratch-stock cutter on the right side frame of the chest of drawers illustrated in fig. 53. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 5
    Figure 5

    Detail of a “cup” illustrated in the 1611 London edition of Sebastian Serlio’s Five Books of Architecture. “Cups” or “Vessels” were usually depicted with feet and covers with finials.

  • Figure 6
    Figure 6

    Detail of the water-sawn sycamore bottom boards of a drawer in the chest of drawers illustrated in fig. 1. Sycamore is difficult to rive and is water-sawn in all of the objects in the Essex County group.

  • Figure 7
    Figure 7

    Detail of the back of the chest of drawers illustrated in fig. 1. The tenons of two drawer supports are visible on the center rail. These supports are for the middle tier of three drawers, an odd feature possibly specified by the patron.

  • Figure 8
    Figure 8

    Cupboard, northern Essex County, Massachusetts, 1680. Red oak, maple, sycamore, and tulip poplar, with oak and sycamore. H. 57 3/4", W. 50", D. 21 5/8". (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum.)

  • Figure 9
    Figure 9

    Detail of the upper right pillar of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 8.

  • Figure 10
    Figure 10

    Detail of the lower right pillar of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 8.

  • Figure 11
    Figure 11

    Detail of the large half-column to the right of the door of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 8.

  • Figure 12
    Figure 12

    Detail of the large half-column at the right rear corner of the trapezoidal section of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 8.

  • Figure 13
    Figure 13

    Chest, Boston, Massachusetts, 1660–1700. Oak, cedrela, and walnut with oak and white pine. H. 30 1/2", W. 45", D. 20 1/2". (Chipstone Foundation; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 14
    Figure 14

    Drawing showing the framing of the trapezoidal storage compartment of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 8. (Drawing by Peter Follansbee; artwork by Wynne 
    Patterson.)

  • Figure 15
    Figure 15

    Drawing showing the framing of the jetty on the cupboard illustrated in fig. 8. (Drawing by Peter Follansbee; artwork by Wynne Patterson.)

  • Figure 16
    Figure 16

    Chest of drawers, northern Essex County, Massachusetts, 1675-1685. Oak and maple with oak and pine. H. 44 1/4", W. 46 1/4", D. 20 5/8". (Courtesy, Peabody Essex Museum.) The piece has been dismantled, repinned, and glued, and the back of each drawer, the top of the case, and the crossetted central plaques on the drawers are replacements. Scribed layout lines for the original appliqués are still visible. About half of the bilaterally symmetrical sphere-and-column appliqués are restored. The original ones relate to those on the cupboard illustrated in fig. 17.

  • Figure 17
    Figure 17

    Cupboard, northern Essex County, Massachusetts, 1675–1685. Oak and maple with oak and pine. H. 58 1/2", W. 46 1/2", D. 20". (Private collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The door, top, middle and lower shelves, upper pillars, and some applied ornaments have been restored based on related examples from the same shop. The feet of the cupboard are original, and they have long cylindrical necks like the finials on the half-columns of the chest illustrated in fig. 16. The cupboard is shown prior to restoration in Wallace Nutting, Furniture Treasury, 2 vols. (Framingham, Mass.: Old America Co., 1928), no. 458.

  • Figure 18
    Figure 18

    Cupboard attributed to the Harvard College joiners, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1670–1700. Oak and maple with pine. H. 53 7/8", W. 46 5/8", D. 20 1/8". (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum.)

  • Figure 19
    Figure 19

    Detail of the shaped lower rail of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 17. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 20
    Figure 20

    Detail of the lower right pillar of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 17. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 21
    Figure 21

    Base of a chest of drawers or cupboard, northern Essex County, Massachusetts, 1681. Oak and maple with oak and sycamore. H. 44 1/8", W. 47", D. 22 1/4". (Courtesy, Harvard University.) The back and bottom boards, which constitute all of the surviving secondary wood, are water-sawn sycamore. The vertical back boards are set in grooves in the top rail and stiles and nailed to an inner lower rail. The pendants, small turned “bosses,” and half-columns on the overhanging stiles are replacements, whereas the half-columns on the door and stiles are original. The planed edge moldings on the lower rails are also period, indicating that the case never had an applied base molding.

  • Figure 22
    Figure 22

    Leaf table, northern Essex County, Massachusetts, 1680–1685. White oak and maple. H. 28", W. 36 3/8", D. 35 5/8" (open). (Courtesy, Metropolitan Museum of Art, gift of Mrs. J. Insley Blair; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The frame and bottom of the drawer is missing and the original front is fixed in place. The pendant under the left frieze is original. Similar drops were present on the addorsed brackets on five other objects attributed to this shop. Like the Staniford chest (fig. 1), the table has paint dating from the eighteenth century. The rails are mahoganized and the top is marbleized.

  • Figure 23
    Figure 23

    Leaf table, Boston, 1660–1680. Walnut, oak, cedrela, and maple with oak and white pine. H. 28 3/4", W. 28 3/4", D. 28 3/4" (open). (Chipstone Foundation; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 24
    Figure 24

    Detail of the water-sawn board used for the shelf of the leaf table illustrated in fig. 22. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 25
    Figure 25

    Detail of the right rear pillar of the leaf table illustrated in fig. 22. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The pillars have tenons turned on both ends, exactly like those on cupboards in the Essex County group.

  • Figure 26
    Figure 26

    Detail of the fly leg of the leaf table illustrated in fig. 22. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 27
    Figure 27

    Cupboard, northern Essex County, Massachusetts, 1683. Oak, maple, and tulip poplar with oak and pine. H. 58 1/4", W. 49 1/2", D. 20 3/4". (Private collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The joiner used riven oak for the frame members and panels and water-sawn oak for the top boards of the upper and lower cases. Traces of bright vermilion paint—probably red lead—survive on the arcades of the upper case.

  • Figure 28
    Figure 28

    Detail of the half-column to the left of the lower drawer of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 27. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 29
    Figure 29

    Detail of the large half-columns to the left of the upper door of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 27. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 30
    Figure 30

    Detail of the large half-column at the left rear corner of the upper storage compartment of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 27. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 31
    Figure 31

    Detail of the large half-column adjacent to the left door of the lower storage compartment of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 27. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 32
    Figure 32

    Detail of the upper right pillar of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 27. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 33
    Figure 33

    Detail of the lower left pillar of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 27. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 34
    Figure 34

    Base of a cupboard, northern Essex County, Massachusetts, 1685–1690. Oak and maple with oak. H. 38 5/8", W. 46 1/2", D. 20 1/8". (Courtesy of Historic New England, gift of Bertram K. and Nina Fletcher Little.)

  • Figure 35
    Figure 35

    Detail of the right pillar of the cupboard base illustrated in fig. 34. (Courtesy of Historic New England, gift of Bertram K. and Nina Fletcher Little.)

  • Figure 36
    Figure 36

    Cupboard, northern Essex County, Massachusetts, 1683. Oak and maple. H. 58 3/8", W. 46 1/4", D. 19 3/4". (Private collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) This is the earliest cupboard with a front jetty. It is shown prior to restoration in Sotheby’s Fine Americana and Silver, New York, June 17, 1999, lot 187.

  • Figure 37
    Figure 37

    Detail of the large upper pillar at the right front corner of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 36. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 38
    Figure 38

    Detail of the small half-columns to the left of the lower carved drawer of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 36. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The back surfaces of the original turnings have marks from a water-powered saw, frame saw, and plane.

  • Figure 39
    Figure 39

    Detail of the left rear jetty pendant of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 36. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The pendants on this cupboard are the boldest ones associated with this shop.

  • Figure 40
    Figure 40

    Cupboard, northern Essex County, Massachusetts, 1684. Oak and maple with oak. H. 53 5/8", W. 48 1/2", D. 20 3/8". (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum.) All of the oak secondary wood is riven. The perimeter moldings on the bottom drawer are missing, and the replaced knobs are not in the correct position. The lower stiles originally had half-columns on their front and side faces. The pendant appliqués of the arcades are missing and the glyphs decorating the imposts and plinths may be replacements. No other piece attributed to this shop has glyphs. The front feet match those of the Woodbury cupboard (fig. 8) and are integral with the stiles.

  • Figure 41
    Figure 41

    Detail of the back of the upper case of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 40.

  • Figure 42
    Figure 42

    Detail of the upper right pillar of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 40. The square shouldered pillars produced by this turner are exceptional, featuring dramatic transitions from thick to thin. They are usually found on upper cases and are the major forms in this shop’s turning hierarchy. Tapered baluster-shaped pillars like those shown in fig. 43 are more commonly found on the lower sections of furniture from this shop.

  • Figure 43
    Figure 43

    Detail of the lower right pillar of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 40. These pillars are trapped between rails that have never been disassembled, thus their orientation must be correct. The pillars of the cupboard shown in fig. 27 display a similar orientation.

  • Figure 44
    Figure 44

    Detail of the large half-column to the right of the door of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 40.

  • Figure 45
    Figure 45

    Detail of the small half-columns to the right of the middle drawer of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 40.

  • Figure 46
    Figure 46

    Detail of the half-column to the right of the lower drawer of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 40.

  • Figure 47
    Figure 47

    Cupboard, northern Essex County, Massachusetts, 1680–1690. Oak and maple with oak. H. 55 1/2", W. 49 1/8", D. 19 7/8". (Courtesy, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, bequest of Charles Hitchcock Tyler.) The half-columns were removed and repainted during an early restoration. Some may be in the wrong position and several are replaced. The lower pillars and half-columns on the center drawer lack the pronounced checks (from moisture loss) found on original turnings on the cupboards and are probably replacements.

  • Figure 48
    Figure 48

    Detail of the bracket on the cupboard illustrated in fig. 47. The bracket is attached with two wrought nails and has carving related to that on the drawer fronts of other pieces in the group.

  • Figure 49
    Figure 49

    Detail of the large half-columns to the left of the door of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 47.

  • Figure 50
    Figure 50

    Detail of the upper left pillar of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 47.

  • Figure 51
    Figure 51

    Detail of the half-columns to the right of the lower drawer of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 47. These Tuscan turnings have more complex finials than the ones on the Perkins cupboard (fig. 36 ).

  • Figure 52
    Figure 52

    Detail of the large half-column at the right rear corner of the storage compartment of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 47.

  • Figure 53
    Figure 53

    Chest of drawers, northern Essex County, Massachusetts, 1685. Oak and maple with oak. H. 35 1/2", W. 44", D. 20 1/2". (Courtesy, Brick Store Museum, Kennebunk, Maine, gift of Mrs. William Goedecke, Mrs. William Lamborn, and Mrs. Edwin E. Hooker; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The brasses are modern and are not in the positions of the original knobs. Several ornaments are missing: two or three appliqués at each end of the second drawer from the top; two appliqués on the center plaque of the third drawer; four groups of three appliqués on the blank spaces between the plaques and carving on the bottom drawer. The latter ornaments resembled the pendants on the arcades of cupboards in the group.

  • Figure 54
    Figure 54

    Detail of the large half-columns to the right of the upper drawers of the chest of drawers illustrated in fig. 53. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 55
    Figure 55

    Detail of the bracket on the chest of drawers illustrated in fig. 53. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 56
    Figure 56

    Detail of the bracket adjacent to the right front foot of the chest of drawers illustrated in fig. 53. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 57
    Figure 57

    Chest of drawers, northern Essex County, Massachusetts, 1685–1690. Oak and maple with oak and sycamore. H. 39 3/4", W. 41 3/8", D. 20". (Courtesy, North Andover Historical Society, Samuel Dale Stevens Collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The chest originally had four pairs of medium-sized half-columns on the stiles and small half-columns on the rectangular plaques of the drawers. The larger examples probably resembled those on the Capen chest (figs. 53, 54). The locks and brass escutcheons are old, but not original. They could not have been installed on the second and fourth drawers while the small half-columns were in place.

  • Figure 58
    Figure 58

    Detail showing two of the four installation marks chiseled on the drawer sides of the chest of drawers illustrated in fig. 57. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 59
    Figure 59

    Detail of the crosseted panel on the third drawer of the chest of drawers illustrated in fig. 57. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 60
    Figure 60

    Detail of a V-shaped crosset on the second drawer of the chest of drawers illustrated in fig. 57. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 61
    Figure 61

    Detail of the right front foot of the chest of drawers illustrated in fig. 57. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 62
    Figure 62

    Chest of drawers, northern Essex County, Massachusetts, 1685–1690. Oak with sycamore and oak. H. 39 3/4", W. 41 1/8", D. 20 1/4". (Private collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The sides of the drawers have numerical alignment marks like those on the chest illustrated in fig. 57.

  • Figure 63
    Figure 63

    Detail of the water-sawn interior surface of the top board of the chest of drawers illustrated in fig. 62.

  • Figure 64
    Figure 64

    Detail showing the position of the moldings on the upper drawer of the chest of drawers illustrated in fig. 62. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 65
    Figure 65

    Detail showing the position of the moldings on the second drawer of the chest of drawers illustrated in fig. 62. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 66
    Figure 66

    Cupboard, northern Essex County, Massachusetts, 1685–1690. Oak and maple with oak and pine. H. 58", W. 49 1/8", D. 23". (Courtesy, Massachusetts Historical Society, gift of Mrs. J. B. Paine; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) This cupboard is the most intact example in the Essex County group. The bracket under the bottom rail is missing; there are minor losses and replacements of applied ornament; and the paint is relatively modern.

  • Figure 67
    Figure 67

    Detail of the central plaque, initials, half-column, and bosses on the bottom drawer of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 66. (Courtesy, Massachusetts Historical Society, photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The incised initials are filled with mastic.

  • Figure 68
    Figure 68

    Detail showing the dovetails on four drawers of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 66. (Courtesy, Massachusetts Historical Society, photo, Peter Follansbee.)

  • Figure 69
    Figure 69

    Detail of the left front foot, base molding, and lower half-columns on the cupboard illustrated in fig. 66. (Courtesy, Massachusetts Historical Society, photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The profile of the half-columns is similar to that of the lower pillars, but inverted.

  • Figure 70
    Figure 70

    Drawing showing the construction of the door of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 66. (Drawing, Alan Miller; artwork, Wynne Patterson.)

  • Figure 71
    Figure 71

    Detail of the upper left pillar of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 66. (Courtesy, Massachusetts Historical Society, photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 72
    Figure 72

    Detail of the lower left pillar of the 
    cupboard illustrated in fig. 66. (Courtesy, Massachusetts Historical Society, photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 73
    Figure 73

    Detail of the small half-columns to the left of the center drawer of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 66. ( Courtesy, Massachusetts Historical Society, photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 74
    Figure 74

    Detail of the large half-columns to the left of the door of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 66. (Courtesy, Massachusetts Historical Society, photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 75
    Figure 75

    Cupboard, northern Essex County, Massachusetts, 1685–1690. Oak and maple with oak and pine. H. 61 3/4", W. 51 3/4", D. 21 5/8". (Courtesy, Currier Museum of Art, Manchester, New Hampshire, bequest of William G. Berry, 1943.8; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The backboards of the upper section are replaced, the floorboards of the storage compartment are missing, and a new soffit seals the entire cornice. The latter replacement changed the height of the upper case, requiring the addition of small spacer blocks between the tops of the pillars and the cornice. The gothic door appears to have been added during the nineteenth century. Its arcade resembles those found on North Shore and Portsmouth furniture of the Federal period. The molding flanking the lunette carving on the top drawer is replaced and the third drawer and bottom drawer are completely new. The drawers originally had dovetails. Evidence suggests that the joints resembled those on the drawers of the Sawyer cupboard (fig. 66) and the example shown in figure 85. All of the moldings and appliqués flanking the carving and on the replaced center plaque of the fourth drawer are missing, and base molding is replaced. The moldings probably resembled those on the first, third, and fourth drawers of the Sawyer cupboard. The pendants, middle brackets and several half-columns, bosses, and pendant appliqués from the arcades are also missing.

  • Figure 76
    Figure 76

    Detail of the right front pillar of the upper case of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 75. (Courtesy, Currier Museum of Art, Manchester, New Hampshire, bequest of William G. Berry, 1943.8; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 77
    Figure 77

    Detail of the right front pillar of the lower case of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 75. (Courtesy, Currier Museum of Art, Manchester, New Hampshire, bequest of William G. Berry, 1943.8; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The pillars at the rear have simple unadorned balusters.

  • Figure 78
    Figure 78

    Detail of a bracket fragment and the small half-columns to the right of the top drawer of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 75. (Courtesy, Currier Museum of Art, Manchester, New Hampshire, bequest of William G. Berry, 1943.8; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The original brackets are tenoned into the front stiles and nailed to the lower edge of the front rail.

  • Figure 79
    Figure 79

    Detail of the half-columns to the right of the door of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 75. (Courtesy, Currier Museum of Art, Manchester, New Hampshire, bequest of William G. Berry, 1943.8; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Fiure 80
    Fiure 80

    Detail of the small half-columns to the right of the bottom drawer of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 75. (Courtesy, Currier Museum of Art, Manchester, New Hampshire, bequest of William G. Berry, 1943.8; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 81
    Figure 81

    Detail of the right front foot of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 75. (Courtesy, Currier Museum of Art, Manchester, New Hampshire, bequest of William G. Berry, 1943.8; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The front feet are made of maple and tenoned to the oak posts. The rear feet are integral and have different turning sequences.

  • Figure 82
    Figure 82

    Detail of the back of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 75. (Courtesy, Currier Museum of Art, Manchester, New Hampshire, bequest of William G. Berry, 1943.8; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 83
    Figure 83

    Drawing showing the framing of the side of the lower case of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 75. (Drawing, Peter Follansbee; artwork, Wynne Patterson.)

  • Figure 84
    Figure 84

    Drawing showing the framing of the front of the lower case of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 75. (Drawing, Peter Follansbee; artwork, Wynne Patterson.)

  • Figure 85
    Figure 85

    Cupboard, northern Essex County, Massachusetts, 1685–1690. Oak and maple with oak and pine. H. 57", W. 48", D. 21". (Courtesy, Braintree Historical Society, gift of Constance Stoner Leggett; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The drawers are rebuilt, but saw kerfs indicate that they had dovetails like those on the Sawyer cupboard. The tops of the upper and lower sections, the shallow shelf above the bottom drawer, and the feet are replacements.

  • Figure 86
    Figure 86

    Detail of the lower left pillar of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 85. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 87
    Figure 87

    Detail of the upper left pillar of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 85. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 88
    Figure 88

    Detail of the half-columns to the right of the upper drawer of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 85. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 89
    Figure 89

    Detail of the half columns to the right of the lower drawer of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 85. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 90
    Figure 90

    Base of a cupboard, northern Essex County, Massachusetts, 1685–1690. Oak and maple. Dimensions not recorded. (Wallace Nutting, Furniture Treasury [Framingham, Mass.: Old America Co., 1928], pl. 445.) The base molding and astragal element between the second and third drawers are repeated on other cupboards from the same shop (see fig. 66).

  • Figure 91
    Figure 91

    Cupboard, northern Essex County, Massachusetts, 1685–1690. Oak and maple with oak and pine. H. 58 3/4", W. 48 1/2", D. 19 3/8". (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, gift of Maurice Geeraerts in memory of Mr. and Mrs. William H. Robeson.) The diamond-shaped applied frame on the upper door, knobs, and feet are replacements. The door probably had moldings similar to those on the door of the cupboard illustrated in figure 85, but in a diamond-shape configuration.

  • Figure 92
    Figure 92

    Detail of the upper left pillar of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 91.

  • Figure 93
    Figure 93

    Detail of the lower left pillar of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 91.

  • Figure 94
    Figure 94

    Detail of the large half-columns to the left of the upper door of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 91.

  • Figure 95
    Figure 95

    Detail of the large half-column on the right rear corner of the upper storage compartment of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 91.

  • Figure 96
    Figure 96

    Detail of the large half-columns between the doors of the lower case of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 91.

  • Figure 97
    Figure 97

    Square table, northern Essex County, Massachusetts, 1685–1690. Oak. H. 31 5/8", W. 46", D. 45 3/8". (Courtesy, Wadsworth Atheneum, Wallace Nutting Collection, gift of J. Pierpont Morgan.) The top surface has been planed and sanded, and the pendants and stretchers are replacements. The original pendants may have resembled those on the frieze of the leaf table illustrated in fig. 22.

  • Figure 98
    Figure 98

    Chest of drawers, northern Essex County, Massachusetts, dated 1692. Oak and maple with oak and pine. H. 40 7/8", W. 45 1/8", D. 18 3/4". (Private collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The top is replaced.

  • Figure 99
    Figure 99

    Dressoir, possibly Paris, 1590–1600. Illustrated in Edouard Baldus, comp., Oeuvre de Jacques Androuet dit Du Cerceau (1870), pl. 25. (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum.)

  • Figure 100
    Figure 100

    Base of a cupboard, England, 1625–1675. Oak and other unidentified woods. H. 37", W. 54", depth not recorded. Illustrated in Sotheby’s, Selected Pieces from the Cold Overton Hall Collections of Oak and Early Furniture, London, October 10, 1986, lot 87.