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Lisa Minardi
From Millbach to Mahantongo: Fraktur and Furniture of the Pennsylvania Germans

American Furniture 2011

Full Article
Contents
  • Figure 1
    Figure 1

    Chest, Heidelberg Township area, Lebanon or Berks County, Pennsylvania, 1792. Walnut and mixed-wood inlay (including maple, sumac, holly, birch, and possibly mahogany) with white pine and oak; brass, iron. H. 27", W. 59 1/4", D. 24 1/2". (Private collection; photo, Laszlo Bodo.) The brasses are replaced. 

  • Figure 2
    Figure 2

    Detail of the interior of the chest illustrated in fig. 1. (Photo, Laszlo Bodo.) The surviving till lid has a molded top and edge. Two large fraktur were once pasted to the underside of the chest lid.

  • Figure 3
    Figure 3

    Detail of the inscription on the chest illustrated in fig. 1. (Photo, Laszlo Bodo.) The “n” after Miller is a suffix applied to women’s surnames (both married and unmarried) in German; depending on the surname, an –n, –en/–in or –sen/–sin suffix was used (e.g., ­Hoffman/Hoffmanin). 

  • Figure 4
    Figure 4

    House of George and Maria Catharina Miller, then Michael and Maria Elisabeth Miller, Millbach, Heidelberg Township, Lancaster County (now Millcreek Township, Lebanon County), Pennsylvania, built in 1752 and expanded by 1760. (Courtesy, Millbach Foundation, Inc.; photo, Laszlo Bodo.) The gable end of the original gambrel-roof house is to the right, and the addition built by Michael Miller, to the left.

  • Figure 5
    Figure 5

    Gristmill of Michael Miller, Millbach, Heidelberg Township, Lancaster County (now Millcreek Township, Lebanon County), Pennsylvania, built in 1784. (Courtesy, Millbach Foundation, Inc.; photo, Laszlo Bodo.)

  • Figure 6
    Figure 6

    Date stone from the Miller house, 1752. (Courtesy, Philadelphia Museum of Art.)

  • Figure 7
    Figure 7

    Date stone of Michael Miller’s gristmill, 1784. (Courtesy, Millbach Foundation, Inc.; photo, Laszlo Bodo.)

  • Figure 8
    Figure 8

    Staircase from the Miller house. (Courtesy, Philadelphia Museum of Art, gift of Mr. and Mrs. Pierre S. du Pont and Mr. and Mrs. Lammot du Pont, 1926.) The staircase was removed in 1926 along with other interior woodwork and installed as a period room at the Philadelphia Museum of Art.

  • Figure 9
    Figure 9

    Stove support from the Miller house, 1757. Stone. H. 14 3/4", W. 20 1/2", D. 5 1/2". (Courtesy of  Conrad Weiser Homestead, Bureau of Historic Sites and Museums, Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, CW74.190; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The foliate design above the initials is similar to one carved above the entry of the nearby Heinrich Zeller house, built in 1745 (see fig. 24). 

  • Figure 10
    Figure 10

    Tall-case clock with movement by Jacob Graff (1729–1778), Lebanon, Lancaster (now Lebanon) County, Pennsylvania, 1750–1760. Walnut and mixed-wood inlays; brass, silvered brass, bronze, iron, steel; glass. H. 98", W. 24 1/4", D. 12 1/2". (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum, bequest of Henry Francis du Pont, 1965.2261; photo, Laszlo Bodo.)

  • Figure 11
    Figure 11

    Detail of the movement of the clock illustrated in fig. 10. (Photo, Laszlo Bodo.)

  • Figure 12
    Figure 12

    Chest, Millbach area, Heidelberg Township, Lancaster County (now Millcreek Township, Lebanon County), Pennsylvania, 1750–1775. Walnut with tulip poplar; iron. H. 25 1/2", W. 52 1/2", D. 26". (Courtesy, Millbach Foundation, Inc.; photo, Laszlo Bodo.)

  • Figure 13
    Figure 13

    Hanging corner cupboard, Millbach area, Heidelberg Township, Lancaster County (now Millcreek Township, Lebanon County), Pennsylvania, 1750–1775. Tulip poplar; iron. H. 34", W. 37", D. 21". (Private collection; photo, Laszlo Bodo.)

  • Figure 14
    Figure 14

    Winged angel head, Millbach area, Heidelberg Township, Lancaster County (now Millcreek Township, Lebanon County), Pennsylvania, 1750–1775. Unglazed earthenware. H. 5 3/4", W. 6 3/4", D. 2". (Courtesy, Millbach Foundation, Inc.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 15
    Figure 15

    New Year’s greeting for Michael and Maria Elisabeth Miller, attributed to Caspar Feeman Jr. (ca. 1725–1810), Millbach area, Heidelberg Township, Lancaster County (now Millcreek Township, Lebanon County), Pennsylvania, 1765. Watercolor and ink on laid paper. 20 1/2" x 16 1/4". (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum, bequest of Henry Francis du Pont, 1957.1202; photo, Laszlo Bodo.) The foliate device framing the text is similar to that on the stove support illustrated in fig. 9. 

  • Figure 16
    Figure 16

    Photograph of a birth and baptismal certificate for Johannes Miller (1766–1848), attributed to Caspar Feeman Jr. (ca. 1725–1810), Millbach area, Heidelberg Township, Lancaster County (now Millcreek Township, Lebanon County), Pennsylvania, ca. 1767. (Courtesy, Winterthur Library, Joseph Downs Collection of Manuscripts and Printed Ephemera, Frederick S. Weiser Collection.) 

  • Figure 17
    Figure 17

    House of Valentine and Susanna Viehmann (Feeman), Millbach area, Heidelberg Township, Lancaster County (now Millcreek Township, Lebanon County), Pennsylvania, built in 1762. (Photo, Laszlo Bodo.)

  • Figure 18
    Figure 18

    Birth and baptismal certificate for Maria Elisabeth Miller (1775–1843), by Henrich Otto (1733–ca. 1799), Millbach, Heidelberg Township, Lancaster County (now Millcreek Township, Lebanon County), Pennsylvania, ca. 1775. Watercolor and ink on laid paper. 12 3/4" x 16 1/4". (Courtesy, Rare Book Department, Free Library of Philadelphia.) 

  • Figure 19
    Figure 19

    Birth and baptismal certificate for Sara Miller (1797–1870), Millbach, Heidelberg Township, Lancaster County (now Millcreek Township, Lebanon County), Pennsylvania, ca. 1797. Watercolor and ink on laid paper. 15 3/4" x 12 3/4". (Courtesy, Rare Book Department, Free Library of Philadelphia.)

  • Figure 20
    Figure 20

    Birth and baptismal certificate for Anna Catharina Lescher (1768–1808), attributed to Johann Conrad Gilbert (1734–1812), ca. 1785. Watercolor and ink on laid paper. 8 1/4" x 12 5/8". (Private collection; photo, Winterthur Museum.)

  • Figure 21
    Figure 21

    Detail of the line-and-berry inlay on a drop-leaf table owned by James and Elizabeth Bartram, possibly by James Bartram (1701–1771), Marple Township area, Chester (now Delaware) County, Pennsylvania, 1725. (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum, promised gift of Mr. and Mrs. John L. McGraw; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) 

  • Figure 22
    Figure 22

    Map of southeastern Pennsylvania showing the location of the Tulpehocken Valley and the counties of Berks, Dauphin, Lancaster, and Lebanon. (Artwork, Nichole Drgan.)

  • Figure 23
    Figure 23

    House of Heinrich Zeller, near Newmanstown, Lebanon County, Pennsylvania, built in 1745. (Photo, Laszlo Bodo.) The central chimney and flared kick to the roof are Germanic features. 

  • Figure 24
    Figure 24

    Detail of the door lintel of the Zeller house. (Photo, Laszlo Bodo.) The foliate device framing the shield is similar to that on the stove support illustrated in fig. 9.

  • Figure 25
    Figure 25

    Charming Forge Mansion, built for George Ege, near Womelsdorf, Heidelberg Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1783. (Photo, Kurfiss/Sotheby’s International Realty.)

  • Figure 26
    Figure 26

    Christ Lutheran Church, near Stouchsburg, Marion Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania, built in 1786. (Courtesy, Mr. and Mrs. Michael Emery.)

  • Figure 27
    Figure 27

    St. Luke Lutheran Church, Schaefferstown, Heidelberg Township, Lebanon County, Pennsylvania, built between 1765 and 1767. (Courtesy, Historic Schaefferstown, Inc.) This photograph was taken before 1884, when the church was remodeled.

  • Figure 28
    Figure 28

    Winged angel heads from St. Luke Lutheran Church, Schaefferstown, Heidelberg Township, Lebanon County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1767. Pine. H. 36", W. 22", D. 6" (framed). (Courtesy, Katharine and Robert Booth; photo, Laszlo Bodo.) The frame is modern.

  • Figure 29
    Figure 29

    Chest, Elizabeth Township area, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1790. Walnut and mixed-wood inlay (including sumac, maple, holly, and fruitwood) with white pine; iron, brass. H. 30 1/4", W. 55 3/4", D. 24 1/2". (Private collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The lower section, including the drawers, base molding, and feet, is rebuilt. 

  • Figure 30
    Figure 30

    Detail of the inscription on the chest illustrated in fig. 29. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 31
    Figure 31

    Tall-case clock, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1790. Walnut and mixed-wood inlay (including sumac) with white pine; brass, painted sheet iron, iron, bronze, steel; glass. H. 93 1/2", W. 22 1/4", D. 12 1/8". (Courtesy, John J. Snyder Jr.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The feet are replaced.

  • Figure 32
    Figure 32

    Detail of the inlay on the chest illustrated in fig. 29 (right) and the clock illustrated in fig. 30 (left). (Photos, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 33
    Figure 33

    Tall-case clock with movement by Jacob Diehl (d. 1857), Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1790. Walnut and mixed-wood inlay with pine; brass, painted sheet iron, iron, bronze, steel; glass. H. 96 1/2", W. 21 1/2", D. 12 1/2". (Courtesy, Metropolitan Museum of Art, purchase, Douglas and Priscilla deForest Williams, Mr. and Mrs. Eric M. Wunsch, and The Sack Foundation Gifts, 1976.279; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 34
    Figure 34

    Detail of the inlay on the clock illustrated in fig. 33. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 35
    Figure 35

    Chest, Heidelberg Township area, Lebanon or Berks County, Pennsylvania, 1788. White pine; iron, brass. H. 26 3/4", W. 54", D. 2 1/2@". (Private collection; photo, David Bohl.) The feet are replaced.

  • Figure 36
    Figure 36

    Detail of the till lid inside the chest illustrated in fig. 48. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 37
    Figure 37

    Detail of a crayon mark inside the chest illustrated in fig. 57. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 38
    Figure 38

    Carrying handles on the chests illustrated in figs. 29 (above) and 48 (below). (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 39
    Figure 39

    Detail of the lock inside the chest illustrated in fig. 48. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 40
    Figure 40

    Details of the lock inside the chest illustrated in fig. 52. This lock is similar to the examples shown in fig. 86.

  • Figure 41
    Figure 41

    Detail of pomegranate motifs on the chests illustrated in figs. 1, 48, 52, and 55. 

  • Figure 42
    Figure 42

    Detail of flower motifs on the chests illustrated in figs. 1 and 52. 

  • Figure 43
    Figure 43

    Detail of the inscription on the chest illustrated in fig. 48. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 44
    Figure 44

    Detail of the small drawers under the till of the chest illustrated in fig. 76. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 45
    Figure 45

    Detail of the decoration and inscription on the chest illustrated in fig. 35. (Photo, David Bohl.)

  • Figure 46
    Figure 46

    Box, Heidelberg Township area, Lebanon or Berks County, Pennsylvania, 1828. (Courtesy, James and Nancy Glazer.)

  • Figure 47
    Figure 47

    Box, Heidelberg Township area, Lebanon or Berks County, Pennsylvania, 1827. (Private collection; photo, Schecter Lee.)

  • Figure 48
    Figure 48

    Chest, Heidelberg Township area, Lebanon or Berks County, Pennsylvania, 1789. Tulip poplar; iron. H. 23 1/2", W. 53 3/4", D. 23". (Private collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) 

  • Figure 49
    Figure 49

    Detail of a hinge inside the chest illustrated in fig. 48. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 50
    Figure 50

    Chest, Heidelberg Township area, Lebanon or Berks County, Pennsylvania, 1790. Pine and tulip poplar; iron. H. 25", W. 54", D. 23 1/2". (Courtesy, Detroit Institute of Arts, USA/The Bridgeman Art Library, 41.127). The feet are replaced. 

  • Figure 51
    Figure 51

    Chest, Heidelberg Township area, Lebanon or Berks County, Pennsylvania, 1793. Materials and dimensions unrecorded. (Photo, Clarence Spohn.)

  • Figure 52
    Figure 52

    Chest, Heidelberg Township area, Lebanon or Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1790. Tulip poplar and pine; iron, brass. H. 26 3/4", W. 52", D. 23 1/8". (Courtesy, a Museum of Fine Arts, Boston trustee and her spouse; photo, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.)

  • Figure 53
    Figure 53

    Detail of the lid of the chest illustrated in fig. 52. 

  • Figure 54
    Figure 54

    Stove plate, Elisabeth Furnace, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1765. Iron. 23 1/2" x 25 1/2". (Courtesy, Mercer Museum of the Bucks County Historical Society.) 

  • Figure 55
    Figure 55

    Chest, Heidelberg Township area, Lebanon or Berks County, Pennsylvania, 1795. White pine; iron, brass. H. 22 3/4", W. 50", D. 21 1/2". (Private collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The feet are replaced.

  • Figure 56
    Figure 56

    Chest, Heidelberg Township area, Lebanon or Berks County, Pennsylvania, 1796. Tulip poplar; iron. H. 23 3/4", W. 51 1/2", D. 22 3/8". (Private collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The feet are replaced. 

  • Figure 57
    Figure 57

    Chest, Heidelberg Township area, Lebanon or Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1790. White pine; iron. H. 23 1/2", W. 52", D. 22 1/2". (Private collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) 

  • Figure 58
    Figure 58

    Detail showing the underside of the till of the chest illustrated in fig. 57. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 59
    Figure 59

    Detail of the end panel of the chest illustrated in fig. 57. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 60
    Figure 60

    Chest, Heidelberg Township area, Lebanon or Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1790. White pine and tulip poplar; iron. H. 23 1/2", W. 51 5/8", D. 22 1/4". (Private collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The feet are replaced.

  • Figure 61
    Figure 61

    Birth and baptismal certificate for Maria Catharina Ache, attributed to Johann Henrich Goettel (1745–1807), Heidelberg Township area, Lebanon or Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1786. Watercolor and ink on laid paper. 7 3/4" x 12 1/2". (Courtesy, Sotheby’s.)

  • Figure 62
    Figure 62

    Chest, Heidelberg Township area, Lebanon or Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1790. White pine and tulip poplar; iron. H. 22", W. 50", D. 21 1/8". (Private collection; photo, Raymond Martinot.) 

  • Figure 63
    Figure 63

    Zither, attributed to Samuel Ache (1764–1832), Schaefferstown, Heidelberg Township, Dauphin (now Lebanon) County, Pennsylvania, 1788. Maple and pine; iron. H. 1 7/8", W. 3 3/4", L. 37 3/8". (Courtesy, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, gift of Mrs. Jeannette S. Hamner, 2000.708.1.) The inscription on the side reads “Das Hertze mein, Soll dir Allein, Ergeben sein, Amen das werde Wahr, wir wollen Singen und Spihlen Ein gantzes jahr / Heydelberg Daunschip Dauphin Caunty 27 Den feberwari SAMUEL ACHE 1788” (This heart of mine shall be given to you alone, Amen. That is true we will sing and play an entire year. Heidelberg Township, Dauphin County 27th of February Samuel Ache 1788). 

  • Figure 64
    Figure 64

    Detail of the inscription on the zither illustrated in fig. 63.

  • Figure 65
    Figure 65

    Bookplate for Mary Ache, by Filbert Achey (1812–1832), Schaefferstown, Lebanon County, Pennsylvania, 1829. Watercolor and ink on wove paper. 3 1/4" x 5 1/2". (Courtesy, Dr. and Mrs. Robert M. Kline; photo, Laszlo Bodo.)

  • Figure 66
    Figure 66

    Schrank, Heidelberg Township area, Lebanon or Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1790. Pine; iron, brass. H. 80", W. 70", D. 21". (Courtesy, Pook & Pook.) 

  • Figure 67
    Figure 67

    Detail of the tulips on the zither illustrated in fig. 63.

  • Figure 68
    Figure 68

    Chest, probably by Moses Pyle (d. 1784), London Grove Township area, Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1747. Walnut and mixed-wood inlay (including sumac, maple, and holly) with white oak, white cedar, and tulip poplar; brass, iron. H. 14 1/4", W. 21 1/8", D. 13 1/2". (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum, partial purchase and partial gift of William R. Smith and sons in memory of Marjorie B. Smith, wife and mother, 2001.19; photo, Laszlo Bodo.) The left drawer is replaced.

  • Figure 69
    Figure 69

    Chest façade, Heidelberg Township area, Lebanon or Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1790. White pine; iron. 14 1/2" x 50 3/4". (Private collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The façade retains its original lock (fig. 86).

  • Figure 70
    Figure 70

    Chest, Heidelberg Township area, Lebanon or Berks County, Pennsylvania, 1805. Pine; iron. H. 23 1/2", W. 52 1/2", D. 23". (Private collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The feet are replaced. 

  • Figure 71
    Figure 71

    Details showing the painted faces on the chest illustrated in fig. 70 and a fraktur. (Private collection.) 

  • Figure 72
    Figure 72

    Chest, Heidelberg Township area, Lebanon or Berks County, Pennsylvania, 1790. Pine; iron, brass. H. 29 1/2", W. 53 1/2", D. 23". (Courtesy, Christie’s.) The feet are replaced. 

  • Figure 73
    Figure 73

    Pair of date boards on the house of Johannes and Anna Maria Bollman and their son George Bollman, Millbach, Heidelberg (now Millcreek) Township, Lebanon County, 1819. (Photo, Laszlo Bodo.) The paint is restored, based on evidence found under a layer of white overpaint.

  • Figure 74
    Figure 74

    Chest, Heidelberg Township area, Lebanon or Berks County, Pennsylvania, 1792. Tulip poplar; iron. H. 19 1/2", W. 45 1/2", D. 23". (Courtesy, Renfrew Museum and Park, Waynesboro, Pa.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) 

  • Figure 75
    Figure 75

    Detail of the end of the chest illustrated in fig. 74. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 76
    Figure 76

    Chest, Heidelberg Township area, Lebanon or Berks County, Pennsylvania, 1794. Tulip poplar; iron. H. 24", W. 50", D. 22 3/4". (Private collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) 

  • Figure 77
    Figure 77

    Detail of the bird drawing on the underside of the till drawer of the chest illustrated in fig. 76. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 78
    Figure 78

    Birth and baptismal certificate for George Seibert, attributed to Andreas Kessler, Elizabeth Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1815. Watercolor and ink on laid paper. 12 5/8" x 15 3/8". (Private collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 79
    Figure 79

    Chest, Heidelberg Township area, Lebanon or Berks County, Pennsylvania, 1795. Tulip poplar and pine; iron. H. 23", W. 50", D. 23". (Courtesy, Peter Tillou; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 80
    Figure 80

    Chest, Heidelberg Township area, Lebanon or Berks County, Pennsylvania, 1795. Tulip poplar and pine; iron, brass. H. 26 3/4", W. 51 1/2", D. 23 1/4". (Private collection; photo, Milly McGehee.)

  • Figure 81
    Figure 81

    Chest, Heidelberg Township area, Lebanon or Berks County, Pennsylvania, 1798. Tulip poplar; iron. H. 24 5/8", W. 51 1/2", D. 23". (Courtesy, Historical Society of Berks County Museum and Library, Reading, Pa.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 82
    Figure 82

    Chest, Heidelberg Township area, Lebanon or Berks County, Pennsylvania, 1792. Tulip poplar and pine; iron, brass. H. 21 7/8", W. 51 1/2", D. 23". (Courtesy, Milwaukee Art Museum, Layton Art Collection, L2000.1; photo, Larry Sanders.) 

  • Figure 83
    Figure 83

    Chest, Heidelberg Township area, Lebanon or Berks County, Pennsylvania, 1793. White pine and tulip poplar; iron. H. 22 1/4", W. 51 1/4", D. 21 3/4". (Courtesy, Greg K. Kramer Antiques; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 84
    Figure 84

    Chest, Heidelberg Township area, Lebanon or Berks County, Pennsylvania, 1797. White pine; iron. H. 22", W. 50 1/2", D. 21 3/4". (Courtesy, Olde Hope Antiques; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 85
    Figure 85

    Detail of the decoration and inscription on the chest illustrated in fig. 84. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 86
    Figure 86

    Details showing the tops and inner surfaces of three locks, the center example installed on the chest illustrated in fig. 69, probably by Henry Seiler (d. 1785) or Henry Seiler Jr. (b. 1772), Lebanon, Lebanon County, ca. 1780–1790. (Courtesy, Sidney Gecker and Philip H. Bradley Co.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) 

  • Figure 87
    Figure 87

    Drawing, attributed to Henrich Otto (1733–ca. 1799), probably Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1775–1785. Watercolor and ink on laid paper. 7 3/4" x 12 5/8". (Courtesy, Philadelphia Museum of Art, gift of George H. Lorimer, 25-95-2.)

  • Figure 88
    Figure 88

    Chest, probably Alsace or Windsor Township area, Berks County, Pennsylvania, 1788. Tulip poplar; iron, brass. H. 28 3/8", W. 50", D. 24". (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum, bequest of Henry Francis du Pont, 1959.2804.) The feet are replaced. 

  • Figure 89
    Figure 89

    Chest, probably Rapho Township area, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1782. Tulip poplar and pine; iron. H. 23", W. 53 1/2", D. 21 5/8". (Courtesy, Philadelphia Museum of Art, gift of George H. Lorimer, 25-95-1; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The feet are replaced. 

  • Figure 90
    Figure 90

    Chest, probably Berks County, Pennsylvania, 1803. Tulip poplar and pine; iron, brass. H. 27", W. 50", D. 22". (Private collection; photo, Pook & Pook.)

  • Figure 91
    Figure 91

    Chest, probably by John Flory (1767–1836), Rapho Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1791. Tulip poplar and pine; iron. H. 25", W. 50", D. 24". (Courtesy, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Titus C. Geesey Collection, 58-110-1; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 92
    Figure 92

    Bookplate for Elisabetha Beck, by Henrich Otto (1733–ca. 1799), probably Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1772. Watercolor and ink on laid paper. 6 1/8" x 13 1/2". (Courtesy, Schwenkfelder Library & Heritage Center, Pennsburg, Pa.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The tapering spiral motif after Otto’s signature, which he often used for embellishment or to fill space, is related to similar designs used to mark the inside of some chests (see fig. 37).

  • Figure 93
    Figure 93

    Birth and baptismal certificate for Johannes Schaeffer, by Henrich Otto (1733–ca. 1799), Schaefferstown, Heidelberg Township, Lancaster (now Lebanon) County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1782. Watercolor and ink on laid paper. 12 5/8" x 15 3/4". (Courtesy, Metropolitan Museum of Art, gift of Mrs. Robert W. de Forest, 1933, 34.100.66; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 94
    Figure 94

    Details of the pomegranate motifs on the chest illustrated in fig. 48 and the fraktur illustrated in fig. 18. 

  • Figure 95
    Figure 95

    Chest, painted decoration attributed to Henrich Otto (1733–ca. 1799), Earl Township area, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1780. Tulip poplar with oak and walnut; iron. H. 23", W. 50 1/2", D. 21 1/4". (Courtesy, State Museum of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 73.163.83; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) 

  • Figure 96
    Figure 96

    Detail of the floral motifs on the chest illustrated in fig. 95. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 97
    Figure 97

    Chest, painted decoration attributed to Henrich Otto (1733–ca. 1799), Millbach area, Heidelberg Township, Lancaster County (now Millcreek Township, Lebanon County), Pennsylvania, 1783. Tulip poplar; iron. H. 23 1/8", W. 49 3/4", D. 22 1/8". (Private collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The feet are replaced.

  • Figure 98
    Figure 98

    Detail of the lid on the chest illustrated in fig. 97. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 99
    Figure 99

    Chest, painted decoration probably by Henrich Otto (1733–ca. 1799), Earl Township area, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1772. Tulip poplar; iron. H. 24 5/8", W. 52 1/8", D. 22 1/2". (Private collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 100
    Figure 100

    Schrank, painted decoration probably by Henrich Otto (1733–ca. 1799), probably Earl Township area, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1775. Tulip poplar; iron, brass. H. 82", W. 64", D. 19". (Private collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 101
    Figure 101

    Details showing the flowers on the chests illustrated in figs. 95, 97, 99; schrank in fig. 100; and fraktur in figs. 92 and 93. 

  • Figure 102
    Figure 102

    Details showing flowers on the fraktur illustrated in fig. 93 and the chest illustrated in fig. 95.

  • Figure 103
    Figure 103

    Details showing the letters and dates on the fraktur illustrated in fig. 92 and the chests illustrated in figs. 95 and 97.

  • Figure 104
    Figure 104

    Birth and baptismal certificate for Johann Michael Moor (b. 1776) by Friedrich Speyer (act. ca. 1774–1801), Millbach, Lebanon County, Pennsylvania, 1784. Watercolor and ink on laid paper. 13" x 16". (Private collection; photo, Irwin Richman.) The certificate is signed by Speyer and inscribed “Schulmeister au der Mühlbach” (Schoolmaster on the Mill Creek).

  • Figure 105
    Figure 105

    Birth and baptismal certificate for William Heiser (b. 1843), infill by Conrad Otto (ca. 1770–1857) on a form printed by Gustav S. Peters in Harrisburg, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1840. Watercolor and ink on wove paper. 16 1/2" x 12 7/8". (Courtesy, Philip and Muriel Berman Museum of Art at Ursinus College, Pennsylvania Folklife Society Collection, PAG1998.218; photo, Glenn Holcombe.)

  • Figure 106
    Figure 106

    Writing sample, by Jacob Otto (ca. 1762–ca. 1825), Rapho Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1795. Watercolor and ink on laid paper. 16 3/4" x 21". (Private collection; photo, Winterthur Library, Joseph Downs Collection of Manuscripts and Printed Ephemera, Frederick S. Weiser Collection.)

  • Figure 107
    Figure 107

    Birth and baptismal certificate for Maria Breneise (b. 1770), infill and decoration by Jacob Otto (ca. 1762–ca. 1825) on a form printed at Ephrata, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1784. Watercolor and ink on laid paper. 13 3/8" x 16 5/8". (Courtesy, Philadelphia Museum of Art, gift of J. Stogdell Stokes, 28-10-91.)

  • Figure 108
    Figure 108

    Birth and baptismal certificate for Catharina Schaeffer (b. 1774), infill and decoration attributed to Jacob Otto (ca. 1762–ca. 1825) on a form printed at Ephrata, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1787. Watercolor and ink on laid paper. 12 1/2" x 15 3/4". (Courtesy, Philip and Muriel Berman Museum of Art at Ursinus College, Pennsylvania Folklife Society Collection, pag1998.156.) The vase with cluster of leaves is similar to that on the chest illustrated in fig. 95. Although the flowers on this fraktur are quite similar to those on examples signed by Henrich Otto, there is a slightly heavier feel to them, suggesting that Jacob Otto both infilled and embellished this work. 

  • Figure 109
    Figure 109

    Chest, probably by John Flory (1767–1836), Rapho Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1799. Pine; iron. H. 26", W. 52 1/4", D. 24". (Private collection; photo, Christie’s Images/Bridgeman Art Library.)

  • Figure 110
    Figure 110

    Chest, probably by John Flory (1767–1836), Rapho Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1788. Pine; iron. H. 21 1/2", W. 50", D. 21 1/2". (Private collection; photo, Pook & Pook.)

  • Figure 111
    Figure 111

    Chest, probably by John Flory (1767–1836), Rapho Township area, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1792. White pine; iron. H. 24 1/2", W. 50", D. 23". (Private collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 112
    Figure 112

    Detail of the chest illustrated in fig. 111. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 113
    Figure 113

    Chest, probably by John Flory (1767–1836), Rapho Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1794. Pine; iron. H. 26 1/4", W. 50", D. 23". (Courtesy, American Museum in Britain, Bath, UK.) 

  • Figure 114
    Figure 114

    Chest, probably by John Flory (1767–1836), Rapho Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1794. Pine; iron. H. 22 1/2", W. 51 3/4", D. 22". (Private collection; photo, courtesy of Christie’s Images/Bridgeman Art Library.)

  • Figure 115
    Figure 115

    Chest, possibly by Jacob Otto (ca. 1762–ca. 1825), Rapho Township area, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1791. Walnut with pine and walnut; brass, iron. H. 27 5/8", W. 56", D. 26". (Courtesy, G. W. Samaha; photo, Rob Manko.)

  • Figure 116
    Figure 116

    Birth and baptismal certificate for Anna Maria Haberack, by William Otto (1761–1841), Lower Mahantongo Township, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania, 1834. Watercolor and ink on wove paper. 12" x 15 1/4". (Private collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 117
    Figure 117

    Chest, attributed to William Otto (1761–1841), Lower Mahantongo Township, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania, 1812. Pine; iron, brass. H. 23 1/4", W. 52 3/4", D. 18 1/4". (Courtesy, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.) 

  • Figure 118
    Figure 118

    Chest, attributed to William Otto (1761–1841), Lower Mahantongo Township, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania, 1814. Tulip poplar and white pine; iron. H. 22 5/8", W. 51", D. 22 1/2". (Courtesy, Olde Hope Antiques; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 119
    Figure 119

    Detail of the chest illustrated in fig. 118. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 120
    Figure 120

    Chest of drawers, attributed to William Otto (1761–1841), Lower Mahantongo Township, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania, 1824. Pine; brass. H. 44", W. 40", D. 19". ­(Private collection; photo, Olde Hope Antiques.) The feet are replaced.

  • Figure 121
    Figure 121

    Birth and baptismal certificate for Christian Zimmerman (b. 1799), attributed to Daniel Otto (ca. 1770–ca. 1820), probably Centre County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1815. Watercolor and ink on laid paper  7 1/2" x 12 1/2". (Courtesy, a trustee of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston and her spouse; photo, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.)

  • Figure 122
    Figure 122

    Drawing, attributed to Daniel Otto (ca. 1770–ca. 1820), probably Centre County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1815. Watercolor, pencil, and ink on laid paper. 8 1/8" x 13 1/4". (Courtesy, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1959.305.2.) 

  • Figure 123
    Figure 123

    Drawing, attributed to Henrich Otto (1733–ca. 1799), probably Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1780. Watercolor and ink on laid paper. 13 1/8" x 16 1/2". (Courtesy, Metropolitan Museum of Art, gift of Edgar William and Bernice Chrysler Garbisch, 1966.66.242.1; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 124
    Figure 124

    Chest, painted decoration probably by Daniel Otto (ca. 1770–ca. 1820), probably Centre County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1815. White pine and tulip poplar; iron. H. 27", W. 50", D. 21". (Private collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) 

  • Figure 125
    Figure 125

    Chest, probably Centre County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1815. White pine; iron, brass. H. 27 1/2", W. 50 3/4", D. 21 7/8". (Courtesy, Barnes Foundation; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 126
    Figure 126

    Chest, probably Lancaster or Centre County, Pennsylvania, 1790–1815. Tulip poplar; iron. H. 23 1/2", W. 48", D. 20 3/4". (Private collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The feet are replaced. 

  • Figure 127
    Figure 127

    Details showing the lions on the chests illustrated in figs. 124–26. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 128
    Figure 128

    Chest, painted decoration probably by Daniel Otto (ca. 1770–ca. 1820), probably Centre County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1815. Pine; iron. H. 24 3/4", W. 48", D. 23". (Private collection; photo, Sotheby’s.) 

  • Figure 129
    Figure 129

    Tall-case clock with case by Baltzer Heydrich (1765–1846) and movement by Abraham Swartz, Lower Salford Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, 1823. Cherry with mixed-wood inlays; brass, painted sheet iron, iron, bronze, steel; glass. H. 90 1/2", W. 21 7/8", D. 11 1/4". (Courtesy, Schwenkfelder Library and Heritage Center, Pennsburg, Pa. gift of Mr. and Mrs. Robert Calhoun; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) Inside the pendulum door the date “October 18th 1823” is written in chalk.

  • Figure 130
    Figure 130

    Detail of the inscription inside the clock illustrated in fig. 129. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 131
    Figure 131

    Drawing, by Baltzer Heydrich (1765–1846), Lower Salford Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, 1845. Watercolor and ink on wove paper. 12 7/8" x 16 3/4". (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum, 1959.141; photo, Jim Schneck.)

  • Figure 132
    Figure 132

    Chest with printed broadside decorated by Friedrich Speyer (act. ca. 1774–1801), Probably Bern Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1790. White pine; iron, brass. H. 28", W. 50 5/8", D. 22 3/4". (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum, 1955.95.1; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 133
    Figure 133

    Tall-case clock with movement by Heinrich Rentzheimer, Salisbury Township, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1788. Walnut with pine; watercolor and ink on laid paper; brass, painted sheet iron, iron, bronze, steel; glass. H. 99", W. 23 3/4", D. 12 1/2". (Courtesy, James and Nancy Glazer.) The bottom third of the lower section and the feet are rebuilt. 

  • Figure 134
    Figure 134

    Detail of the fraktur in the waist door of the clock illustrated in fig. 133. 

  • Figure 135
    Figure 135

    Chest of drawers, Mahantongo Valley, Northumberland County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1835. Tulip poplar and yellow pine; brass. H. 52 1/2", W. 44", D. 20". (Courtesy, Katharine and Robert Booth; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 136
    Figure 136

    Details showing an angel on a fraktur printed by Henrich Ebner, Allentown, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1820 and the chest illustrated in fig. 135. (Courtesy, Katharine and Robert Booth; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 137
    Figure 137

    Kitchen cupboard, Mahantongo Valley, Northumberland County, Pennsylvania, 1830. Tulip poplar and pine; glass; brass. H. 83 1/4", W. 66", D. 33 1/2". (Courtesy, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Titus C. Geesey Collection, 54-85-32a,b; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 138
    Figure 138

    Details showing the angel on the broadside of the poem Concordia printed by Daniel P. Lange and the angels on the door of the cupboard illustrated in fig. 137, Hanover, Adams County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1825. (Courtesy, York County Heritage Trust.) Printer John S. Wiestling of Harrisburg, Dauphin County, also used similar angels.

  • Figure 139
    Figure 139

    Chest, Mahantongo Valley, Northumberland County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1835. Yellow pine and tulip poplar; iron, brass. H. 28 1/2", W. 49 7/8", D. 21". (Courtesy, Katharine and Robert Booth; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The drawers are false.

  • Figure 140
    Figure 140

    Details of a praying child on the chest illustrated in fig. 139 and a praying child from a birth and baptismal certificate with printing attributed to Jacob Schnee, Lebanon, Lebanon County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1815. (Courtesy, Rare Book Department, Free Library of Philadelphia.) 

  • Figure 141
    Figure 141

    Chest, Mahantongo Valley, Northumberland County, Pennsylvania, 1831. Yellow pine and tulip poplar; iron, brass. H. 29 7/8", W. 50", D. 23". (Courtesy, Katharine and Robert Booth; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The feet are replaced.

  • Figure 142
    Figure 142

    Birth and baptismal certificate for Elisabeth Baumgardner (b. 1812), by Johann Valentin Schuller Jr. (1759–ca. 1816), on a form probably printed in Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1811. Watercolor and ink on laid paper. 7 1/2" x 12 3/8". (Courtesy, Philip and Muriel Berman Museum of Art at Ursinus College, Pennsylvania Folklife Society Collection, PAG1998.173.)

  • Figure 143
    Figure 143

    Chest, probably Mahantongo Valley, Northumberland County or Centre County, Pennsylvania, 1800–1820. Pine; iron, brass. H. 24 3/4", W. 50", D. 17 3/4". (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum, 1957.99.4). 

  • Figure 144
    Figure 144

    Broadside of Adam and Eve, printed by Heinrich B. Sage, Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1820. Watercolor and ink on wove paper. 14 1/2" x 12 1/4". (Private collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)