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Lisa Minardi
Philadelphia, Furniture, and the Pennsylvania Germans: A Reevaluation

American Furniture 2013

Full Article
Contents
  • Figure 1
    Figure 1

    Prospect Of the new Lutheran Church in Philada which was on the 26th of Dec. 1794 in the evening from the hour of eight till twelve Consumed by Fire, engraved by Frederick Reiche, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1795. (Courtesy, Historical Society of Pennsylvania.)

  • Figure 2
    Figure 2

    Detail of a portrait of Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, from Justus Heinrich Christian Helmuth, Denkmal der Liebe und Achtung . . . dem Herrn D. Heinrich Melchior Mühlenberg (Philadelphia: Melchior Steiner, 1788). (Courtesy, Lutheran Archives Center, Philadelphia.)

  • Figure 3
    Figure 3

    Old Lutheran Church, in Fifth Street, Philadelphia, drawn and engraved by William Russell Birch and Thomas Birch, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1800, and published in Birch’s Views of Philadelphia (Philadelphia: W. Birch, 1800). (Courtesy, Winterthur Library, Printed Book and Periodical Collection; photo, James Schneck.)

  • Figure 4
    Figure 4

    New Lutheran Church, in Fourth Street Philadelphia, drawn and engraved by William Russell Birch and Thomas Birch, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1799, and published in Birch’s Views of Philadelphia (Philadelphia: W. Birch, 1800). (Courtesy, Winterthur Library, Printed Book and Periodical Collection; photo, James Schneck.) When Philadelphia was the federal capital during the 1790s, delegations of Indians visited the city to settle affairs with the government. This engraving is said to depict Frederick Muhlenberg conducting a tour for one of these groups. 

  • Figure 5
    Figure 5

    Peter Frick, organ case, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 1771–1774. (Courtesy, Holy Trinity Lutheran Church, Lancaster, Pa.; photo, ca. 1880.) 

  • Figure 6
    Figure 6

    Detail of the carved plaque at the base of the central tower on the organ illustrated in fig. 5. (Courtesy, Holy Trinity Lutheran Church, Lancaster, Pa.; photo, Lloyd Bull.)

  • Figure 7
    Figure 7

    Photograph of Zion Lutheran Church interior, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1866. (Private collection; photo, Winterthur Museum.)

  • Figure 8
    Figure 8

    Christian Selzer, chest, Jonestown, Leb­anon County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1796. White pine with tulip poplar. H. 23 1/2", W. 52 1/4", D. 22 5/8". (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum; photo, Laszlo Bodo.) 

  • Figure 9
    Figure 9

    Dish attributed to George Hubener, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, 1789. Lead-glazed red earthenware. Diam. 13". (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 10
    Figure 10

    Birth and baptismal certificate for Anna Sara Huett, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1782. Watercolor and ink on laid paper. 16" x 12 1/2". (Courtesy, Steve and Susan Babinsky; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 11
    Figure 11

    Chest-over-drawers, Manheim area, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1780. Cherry with walnut and yellow pine. H. 19", W. 29 1/4", D. 15 3/*4". (Private collection; photo, Winterthur Museum, Laszlo Bodo.) The brasses are replaced.

  • Figure 12
    Figure 12

    Ten-plate stove, Elizabeth Furnace, Elizabeth Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1769. Iron. H. 63 1/4", W. 15", D. 44 1/4". (Courtesy, Hershey Museum; photo, Metropolitan Museum of Art, David Allison.) The front plate depicts Aesop’s fable of the dog and its reflection. 

  • Figure 13
    Figure 13

    George Heap, The East Prospect of the City of Philadelphia in the Province of Pennsylvania (London Magazine, 1761). (Courtesy, American Philosophical Society.) 

  • Figure 14
    Figure 14

    Map of southeastern Pennsylvania. (Artwork, Wynne Patterson and Tom Willcockson.)

  • Figure 15
    Figure 15

    Plan of the City of Philadelphia, drawn and engraved by William Russell Birch and Thomas Birch, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1800, and published in Birch’s Views of Philadelphia (Philadelphia: W. Birch, 1800) (Courtesy, Winterthur Library, Printed Book and Periodical Collection; photo, James Schneck.)

  • Figure 16
    Figure 16

    Looking glass labeled by John Elliott Sr., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1762–1767. Walnut with white cedar. H. 13 1/4", W. 7", D. 3/4". (Private collection; photo, Winterthur Museum, Laszlo Bodo.)

  • Figure 17
    Figure 17

    Detail of the label on the reverse of the looking glass illustrated in fig. 16.

  • Figure 18
    Figure 18

    Map of European origins of German-speaking immigrants to Pennsylvania (in blue). (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum; artwork, Tom Willcockson, Mapcraft.com.)

  • Figure 19
    Figure 19

    Armchair attributed to the shop of Solomon Fussell, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ca. 1740. Maple. H. 45", W. 25 1/2", D. 21 1/4". (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum; photo, James Schneck.)

  • Figure 20
    Figure 20

    Christopher Witt, Johannes Kelpius, Germantown, Pennsylvania, ca. 1705. Watercolor and ink on laid paper. 9 1/8" x 6 3/8". (Courtesy, Historical Society of Pennsylvania.)

  • Figure 21
    Figure 21

    Side chair, probably Germantown, Pennsylvania, 1730–1740. Walnut. H. 43 3/4", W. 18 1/2", D. 15 1/2". (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum; photo, James Schneck.)

  • Figure 22
    Figure 22

    Side chair, probably West Marlborough Township area, Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1730–1750. Walnut. H. 40 1/2", W. 17 3/4", D. 16 1/2". (Courtesy, Primitive Hall Foundation; photo, Winterthur Museum, Laszlo Bodo.)

  • Figure 23
    Figure 23

    Chest, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ca. 1750. Walnut veneer and maple and mahogany inlay with yellow pine. H. 8 1/4", W. 12 1/4", D. 8". (Courtesy, Krauth Memorial Library, Lutheran Theological Seminary at Philadelphia; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) Two slots were inserted at a later date to convert the chest into an alms box or ballot box. The veneer was identified as American black walnut by microanalysis.

  • Figure 24
    Figure 24

    Detail of the lid of the chest illustrated in fig. 23. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 25
    Figure 25

    Lewis Miller, drawing of the altar in Christ Lutheran Church, York, Pennsylvania, ca. 1811. (Courtesy, York County Heritage Trust; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 26
    Figure 26

    End view of the chest illustrated in fig. 23. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 27
    Figure 27

    Tall-case clock, Philadelphia area, Pennsylvania, 1740. Walnut and mixed-wood inlay with tulip poplar and red oak. H. 90", W. 20 1/2", D. 13". (Courtesy, Rocky Hill Collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The movement is probably British and dates 1680–1700.

  • Figure 28
    Figure 28

    Schrank, Philadelphia area, Pennsylvania, 1741. Walnut and mixed-wood inlay with yellow pine, tulip poplar, walnut, and oak. H. 76", W. 75 1/4", D. 27 1/2". (Courtesy, Rocky Hill Collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 29
    Figure 29

    Detail of an inlaid pilaster on the schrank illustrated in fig. 28. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 30
    Figure 30

    Detail of a column with carved floral decoration, in Georg Caspar Erasmus, Seulen-Buch Oder Gründlicher Bericht von der Fünff Ordnungen der Architectur-Kunst welche solche von Marco Vitruvio, Jacobo Barrozzio, Hans Blumen C. und Andern . . . (Nuremberg, 1688). (Courtesy, Winterthur Library, Printed Book and Periodical Collection; photo, James Schneck.)

  • Figure 31
    Figure 31

    Detail of the Ionic and Corinthian orders, in Georg Caspar Erasmus, Seulen-Buch Oder Gründlicher Bericht von der Fünff Ordnungen der Architectur-Kunst welche solche von Marco Vitruvio, Jacobo Barrozzio, Hans Blumen C. und Andern . . . (Nuremberg, 1688). (Courtesy, Winterthur Library, Printed Book and Periodical Collection; photo, James Schneck.)

  • Figure 32
    Figure 32

    Detail of the inlaid shell and carved capital on the schrank illustrated in fig. 28. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 33
    Figure 33

    Details of the inlaid birds on the schrank illustrated in fig. 28. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 34
    Figure 34

    The Parrot of Carolina, in Mark Catesby, Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands (London, 1729–1747). (Courtesy, Winterthur Library, Printed Book and Periodical Collection; photo, James Schneck.)

  • Figure 35
    Figure 35

    Drawing of a parrot, bird, and flowers, attributed to Henrich Otto, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1780. Watercolor and ink on laid paper. 7 7/8" x 6 1/2". (Collection of Dr. and Mrs. Donald M. Herr.)

  • Figure 36
    Figure 36

    Desk, Philadelphia area, Pennsylvania, ca. 1750. Walnut and mixed-wood inlay with walnut and tulip poplar. H. 42 3/4", W. 42", D. 21 1/4". (Private collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) 

  • Figure 37
    Figure 37

    Lid of the desk illustrated in fig. 36. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 38
    Figure 38

    Detail of the figure inlaid on the desk illustrated in fig. 36. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 39
    Figure 39

    Details showing two flowers inlaid on the desk illustrated in fig. 36. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 40
    Figure 40

    Details showing the birds inlaid on the pendulum doors of a clock made for George Yunt, Ephrata, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1755 (left), and a clock, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1755 (right). (Courtesy, Earle H. and Yvonne Henderson; photo, Winterthur Museum, Laszlo Bodo [left]; courtesy, Pook & Pook [right].)

  • Figure 41
    Figure 41

    Valuables cabinet or spice box, Philadelphia area, Pennsylvania, ca. 1740. Walnut and mixed-wood inlay with walnut and pine. H. 16", W. 14 1/4", D. 10 1/8". (Private collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) 

  • Figure 42
    Figure 42

    Detail of the inlay on the cabinet illustrated in fig. 41. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 43
    Figure 43

    Detail of the interior of the cabinet illustrated in fig. 41. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 44
    Figure 44

    Desk-and-bookcase, Kirchheim unter Teck, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, 1720–1730. Walnut, maple, and plum with poplar and yew. H. 62 1/2", W. 44 1/4", D. 30". (Courtesy, Landesmuseum Württemberg, Stuttgart, 1977/106.) 

  • Figure 45
    Figure 45

    A Parroqueet from Angola, in Eleazar Albin, A Natural History of Birds, vol. 3 (London, 1740). (Courtesy, Teylers Museum.)

  • Figure 46
    Figure 46

    Pair of silkwork pictures, by Sarah Wistar, Philadelphia, 1752. Silk on silk moiré. 9 1/2" x 7" (unframed). (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum.)

  • Figure 47
    Figure 47

    Tall-case clock with movement by Augustin Neisser, Philadelphia area, Pennsylvania, ca. 1745. Walnut and mixed-wood inlay with tulip poplar and pine. H. 93 1/2", W. 22 1/2", D. 12 1/2". (Courtesy, Historical Society of Berks County, Reading, Pa.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The feet, waist door hinges, and bottom section of waist molding are replaced.

  • Figure 48
    Figure 48

    Tall-case clock with movement by Joseph Wills, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; case, Philadelphia area, Pennsylvania, ca. 1745. Walnut and mixed-wood inlay with tulip poplar and pine. H. 86", W. 22 1/4", D. 12". (Courtesy, York County Heritage Trust; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The waist door hinges are replaced. 

  • Figure 49
    Figure 49

    Details of the inlaid birds on the clocks illustrated in fig. 47 (left) and fig. 48 (right). (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 50
    Figure 50

    Detail of the cartouche on the clock illustrated in fig. 48. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 51
    Figure 51

    Designs for cartouches in A Compleat Book of Ornaments (London, ca. 1740). (Courtesy, Winterthur Library, Printed Book and Periodical Collection; photo, James Schneck.)

  • Figure 52
    Figure 52

    Johann Georg Wahl, tabernakelschrank Osthofen, Germany, 1743. Oak with maple and walnut veneer and mixed-wood, ivory, and ebony inlay. H. 81 1/2", W. 47", D. 26". (Courtesy, Newark Museum; photo, Robert Crabb, 1929)

  • Figure 53
    Figure 53

    Library bookcase attributed to Martin Pfeninger, Charleston, South Carolina, 1770–1775. Mahogany, mahogany and burl walnut veneer, mixed-wood inlays and ivory with cypress. H. 128 3/4", W. 99", D. 20 1/2". (Courtesy, Charleston Museum; photo, Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 54
    Figure 54

    Tall-case clock with movement by George Miller and case by William Bomberger, Germantown, Pennsylvania, 1765. Walnut with tulip poplar, and yellow pine. H. 98", W. 20 3/4", D. 11 1/4". (Private collection; photo, Winterthur Museum, Laszlo Bodo.)

  • Figure 55
    Figure 55

    Details of the label inside the clock illustrated in fig. 54. (Photo, Laszlo Bodo.)

  • Figure 56
    Figure 56

    Jonathan Shoemaker, chest-on-chest, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ca. 1765. Walnut with tulip poplar and white cedar. H. 97", W. 44", D. 23". (Courtesy, © Christie’s Images Ltd.) 

  • Figure 57
    Figure 57

    Detail of the carving on the chest-on-chest illustrated in fig. 56.

  • Figure 58
    Figure 58

    Armchair, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ca. 1770. Mahogany. H. 39 3/4", W. 29", D. 22". (Courtesy, Philadelphia Museum of Art, bequest of William W. Doughten, 1956; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The splat has been altered by the removal of a carved tassel.

  • Figure 59
    Figure 59

    Pair of side chairs attributed to Leonard Kessler, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1763. Mahogany. H. 40 1/2", W. 21 1/2", D. 17". (Private collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) 

  • Figure 60
    Figure 60

    Detail of the cartouche on the crest of one of the chairs illustrated in fig. 59. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.) 

  • Figure 61
    Figure 61

    Detail of the cartouche on the chair illustrated in fig. 62. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 62
    Figure 62

    Side chair, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ca. 1765. Mahogany. H. 41", W. 21 1/2", D. 15 1/2". (Courtesy, Leslie Miller and Richard Worley; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The carving is attributed to Nicholas Bernard.

  • Figure 63
    Figure 63

    Side chair attributed to Leonard Kessler, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ca. 1765. Mahogany. H. 40 1/2", W. 21 1/2", D. 17". (Courtesy, Yale University Art Gallery, Mabel Brady Garvan Collection.)

  • Figure 64
    Figure 64

    Detail of the cartouche on the chair illustrated in fig. 63.

  • Figure 65
    Figure 65

    Side chair attributed to Leonard Kessler, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ca. 1765. Mahogany. H. 41", W. 21", D. 16 1/2". (Courtesy, H. L. Chalfant.)

  • Figure 66
    Figure 66

    House of Henry and Mary Muhlenberg, Trappe, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, built ca. 1750–1755. (Photo, Glenn Holcombe.) 

  • Figure 67
    Figure 67

    Tea table, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ca. 1766. Mahogany. Dimensions unrecorded. (Photo reproduced from Henrietta Meier Oakley and John Christopher Schwab, Muhlenberg Album [New Haven, Conn.: the authors, 1910].)

  • Figure 68
    Figure 68

    House of Frederick Muhlenberg, Trappe, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, built ca. 1763. (Courtesy, The Speaker’s House; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The roofline of the store is visible on the right side; the mansard roof is a later addition.

  • Figure 69
    Figure 69

    Augustus Lutheran Church, Trappe, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, built 1743. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The stucco is a later addition.

  • Figure 70
    Figure 70

    Communion flagon attributed to Johann Philip Alberti, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ca. 1760. Pewter. H. 13". (Courtesy, Augustus Lutheran Church; photo, Glenn Holcombe.)

  • Figure 71
    Figure 71

    Communion flagon and chalice attributed to William Will, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1795. Pewter. H. 13 3/4" (flagon), 7 7/8" (chalice). (Courtesy, Yale University Art Gallery, The Dobson Foundation; Friends of American Arts Acquisition Fund; Mr. and Mrs. Frank J. Coyle, LL.B. 1943, Fund, Peter B. Cooper, B.A. 1960, LL.B. 1964, M.U.S. 1965, and Field C. McIntyre American Decorative Arts Acquisition Fund; Friends of American Arts Decorative Arts Acquisition; and Lisa Koenigsberg, M.A. 1981, M.Phil. 1984, Ph.D. 1987, and David Becker, B.A. 1979 Fund [flagon]; Winterthur Museum [chalice].)

  • Figure 72
    Figure 72

    Side chair, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ca. 1760. Walnut with hard pine slip seat frame. H. 40 1/2", W. 24", D. 21". (Private collection; photo, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, Craig McDougal.)

  • Figure 73
    Figure 73

    Detail of the crest on the chair illustrated in fig. 72. (Photo, Craig McDougal.)

  • Figure 74
    Figure 74

    Joseph Hiester, attributed to Jacob Witman, Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, 1795. Oil on canvas. 36" x 30 1/2". (Courtesy, Historical Society of Berks County, Reading, Pa.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 75
    Figure 75

    Elizabeth Hiester, attributed to Jacob Witman, Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, 1795. Oil on canvas. 36" x 30". (Courtesy, Historical Society of Berks County, Reading, Pa.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 76
    Figure 76

    Bergère attributed to George Bright, Boston, Massachusetts, 1797. Mahogany with white pine. H. 33 1/2", W. 24", D. 23 3/4". (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum; photo, Laszlo Bodo.)

  • Figure 77
    Figure 77

    Tea table, probably Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1775. Walnut. H. 28 1/8", Diam. 33 7/8".(Historical Society of Berks County, Reading, Pa.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 78
    Figure 78

    House of Daniel Hiester, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, built 1757. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 79
    Figure 79

    Paneled wall with built-in schrank and corner fireplace in the Daniel Hiester House. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 80
    Figure 80

    Detail of the staircase in the Daniel Hiester House. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 81
    Figure 81

    Side chair, Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1765. Walnut. H. 39 1/2", W. 21 3/4", D. 20". (Courtesy, Historical Society of Berks County, Reading, Pa.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 82
    Figure 82

    Detail of the cartouche on the chair illustrated in fig. 81. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 83
    Figure 83

    Side chair, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1770. (Courtesy, Pook & Pook.)

  • Figure 84
    Figure 84

    John Meng, John Meng, Germantown, Pennsylvania, ca. 1750. Oil on canvas. 43 1/4" x 32 1/2". (Courtesy, Philadelphia History Museum at the Atwater Kent, The Historical Society of Pennsylvania Collection.) 

  • Figure 85
    Figure 85

    Johann Gottlob Klemm, spinet, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1739. Walnut, maple, yellow pine, and white cedar. H. 33 1/2", W. 73 1/4", D. 27". (Image copyright © Metropolitan Museum of Art, Rogers Fund, 1944; image source, Art Resource, NY.) The keyboard is replaced.

  • Figure 86
    Figure 86

    Mather Brown, Portrait of a Young Woman, Boston, Massachusetts, 1801. Oil on canvas. 50" x 40 1/4". (Image copyright © Metropolitan Museum of Art, gift of Caroline Newhouse, 1965; image source, Art Resource, NY.)

  • Figure 87
    Figure 87

    Music stool, possibly Pennsylvania, ca. 1810. Mahogany, tulip poplar, hickory (screw); paint. (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum; photo, James Schneck.) The black horsehair upholstery and brass nails are original.

  • Figure 88
    Figure 88

    Charles Albrecht, square piano, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1789. Mahogany, mahogany and satinwood veneer, black mastic, ivory, ebony, and brass. H. 31 1/2", W. 61 3/4", D. 21 1/2". (Courtesy, Philadelphia History Museum at the Atwater Kent, The Historical Society of Pennsylvania Collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 89
    Figure 89

    Detail of the nameboard on the piano illustrated in fig. 88. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 90
    Figure 90

    Detail of the letter “C” on the nameboard of the piano illustrated in fig. 88. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 91
    Figure 91

    Detail of the nameboard on a square piano by Charles Albrecht, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ca. 1790. Mahogany, mahogany and satinwood veneer, and black mastic (infill). (Courtesy, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.)

  • Figure 92
    Figure 92

    Charles Albrecht, square piano, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ca. 1790. Mahogany, mahogany and satinwood veneer, mixed-wood inlay, ivory, ebony, and brass. H. 33", W. 63", D. 22 1/2". (Courtesy, E. Milby Burton Memorial Trust and The Charleston Museum, photo, Sean Money.) 

  • Figure 93
    Figure 93

    Detail of the inlay on the nameboard of the piano illustrated in fig. 92. 

  • Figure 94
    Figure 94

    Detail of the nameboard on the piano illustrated in fig. 92. 

  • Figure 95
    Figure 95

    George Albrecht, square piano, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ca. 1797. Mahogany with mahogany veneer and mixed-wood inlay; ivory, ebony, brass. H. 33 7/8", W. 64 5/8", D. 22 1/4". (Courtesy, State Museum of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The only known piano signed by George Albrecht, it may date to 1797, when Charles is absent from the Philadelphia city directory and was likely in Chester County. 

  • Figure 96
    Figure 96

    Detail of the nameboard on the piano illustrated in fig. 95. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 97
    Figure 97

    Detail of the key well inlay on the piano illustrated in fig. 95. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 98
    Figure 98

    Charles Albrecht, square piano, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1800–1805. Mahogany, mahogany and satinwood veneer, ivory, ebony, and brass. H. 31 1/2", W. 63", D. 22 1/4". (Courtesy, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, gift of Mrs. Jeannette S. Hamner; photo, John Watson.) This piano has the serial number 166 and is signed on the key bed “Joshua Baker Maker.” The music shelf is replaced.

  • Figure 99
    Figure 99

    Detail of the nameboard on the piano illustrated in fig. 98.

  • Figure 100
    Figure 100

    Detail of the nameboard on a square piano by Charles Albrecht, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ca. 1800. (Courtesy, Blennerhassett Historical Foundation; photo, Donald H. Prior.)

  • Figure 101
    Figure 101

    Charles Albrecht, square piano, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ca. 1800. Mahogany, mahogany and satinwood veneer; ivory, ebony, and brass. H. 33 3/4", W. 62 3/4", D. 22 1/4". (Courtesy, Christie’s Images, Ltd.)

  • Figure 102
    Figure 102

    Charles Albrecht and Charles Deal, square piano, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1813. Mahogany, mahogany and satinwood veneer; ivory, ebony, and brass. H. 35 1/4", W. 69", D. 25". (Courtesy, Freeman’s; photo, Elizabeth Field.) This piano has the serial number 71 and is signed on the inside by Charles Deal.

  • Figure 103
    Figure 103

    Detail of the nameboard on the piano illustrated in fig. 102. (Photo, Daniel C. Scheid.) 

  • Figure 104
    Figure 104

    Detail of the action in the piano illustrated in fig. 98. (Photo, John Watson.)

  • Figure 105
    Figure 105

    John Huber, square piano, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 1805–1809. Mahogany with satinwood veneer; ivory, ebony; paper, glass. H. 33 1/8", W. 65 5/8", D. 23 1/8". (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, The Friends of the Colonial Williamsburg Collections Fund; photo, John Watson.) 

  • Figure 106
    Figure 106

    Detail of the action in the piano illustrated in fig. 105. (Photo, John Watson.)

  • Figure 107
    Figure 107

    Detail of the label on the piano illustrated in fig. 105. (Photo, John Watson.)

  • Figure 108
    Figure 108

    Anna Kliest, The Birthday Wish, made for Jacob van Vleck, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, 1795. 9" x 7 1/2". Watercolor and ink on laid paper. (Courtesy, Moravian Historical Society, Nazareth, Pa.)

  • Figure 109
    Figure 109

    Tunebook, probably Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, 1791. (Courtesy, Winterthur Library, Joseph Downs Collection of Manuscripts and Printed Ephemera; photo, James Schneck.) This book may have been shared with Rebecca Hiester’s sister, Mary Elisabeth, whose name is inscribed within.

  • Figure 110
    Figure 110

    Detail of the nameboard on a square piano by John Haberacker, Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1805. Satinwood. (Courtesy, Marlowe A. Sigal.)

  • Figure 111
    Figure 111

    Design for a frieze or tablet illustrated in plate 36 in Thomas Sheraton’s The Cabinet-Maker and Upholsterer’s Drawing Book (London, 1791–1794). (Courtesy, Winterthur Library, Printed Book and Periodical Collection; photo, James Schneck.)

  • Figure 112
    Figure 112

    John Haberacker, square piano, Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1805. Mahogany with mahogany and satinwood veneer, ivory, and ebony. H. 33 5/8, W. 64, D. 22 5/8". (Courtesy, Historic RittenhouseTown; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 113
    Figure 113

    Detail of the nameboard on the piano illustrated in fig. 112. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 114
    Figure 114

    Birth and baptismal certificate of Maria Magdalena Meyer, decoration attributed to Frederick Christopher Bischoff, Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1800. Watercolor and ink on laid paper. 13" x 14". (Courtesy, Rare Books Department, Free Library of Philadelphia.)

  • Figure 115
    Figure 115

    Portrait of John Stump, attributed to Frederick Christopher Bischoff, Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1805. Oil on panel. 10" x 8". (Courtesy, Historical Society of Berks County, Reading, Pa.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 116
    Figure 116

    Frederick Christopher Bischoff, fire bucket, Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1805. Leather. H. 13". (Courtesy, Historical Society of Berks County, Reading, Pa.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 117
    Figure 117

    Detail of the nameboard on a square piano by John Haberacker, Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1820. (Courtesy, John Watson.) 

  • Figure 118
    Figure 118

    Joseph Wright, Frederick Augustus Conrad Muhlenberg, New York, 1790. Oil on canvas with applied wood strip. 47" x 37" (including frame). (Courtesy, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution / Art Resource, NY.) A 1 3/8" strip of wood was added to the canvas at the left edge and painted by Wright.

  • Figure 119
    Figure 119

    Brettstuhl (board chair), southeastern Pennsylvania, ca. 1775. Pine and oak. H. 32", W. 18", D. 18". (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum; photo, Laszlo Bodo.)

  • Figure 120
    Figure 120

    Chair attributed to Johann Friedrich Bourquin (1762–1830), Bethlehem, Northampton County, Pennsylvania, 1803–1806. Maple; paint. H. 39 1/4", W. 18 1/2", D. 18". (Courtesy, Moravian Archives, Bethlehem, Pa.; photo, Winterthur Museum, Laszlo Bodo.)

  • Figure 121
    Figure 121

    Teapot, southeastern Pennsylvania, 1779. Lead-glazed red earthenware. H. 5 5/8". (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum; photo, Laszlo Bodo.)

  • Figure 122
    Figure 122

    Christian Wiltberger (1766–1851), sugar bowl. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ca. 1800. Silver. H. 10 1/4". (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum.)

  • Figure 123
    Figure 123

    Chest-over-drawers, southeastern Pennsylvania, ca. 1815. Pine; paint; brass. H. 29 3/8", W. 51", D. 23". (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum; photo, Laszlo Bodo.)

  • Figure 124
    Figure 124

    Detail of the eagle on the chest illustrated in fig. 123. (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum; photo, Laszlo Bodo.)