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Luke Beckerdite
Pattern Carving in Eighteenth-Century Philadelphia

American Furniture 2014

Full Article
Contents
  • Figure 1
    Figure 1

    Pattern for the side plate of a six- or ten-plate stove, Batsto Furnace, Burlington County, New Jersey, 1780–1790. Mahogany with oak (battens). 26" x 33". (Courtesy, Burlington County Historical Society; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 2
    Figure 2

    Firescreen attributed to Thomas Affleck with carving attributed to Bernard and Jugiez, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1770–1775. Mahogany. H. 60 3/4". (Courtesy, Chipstone Foundation.)

  • Figure 3
    Figure 3

    Andirons, possibly Daniel King, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1780–1790. Brass; wrought iron. H. 19 1/2". (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum.)

  • Figure 4
    Figure 4

    Details of a foot on the firescreen illustrated in fig. 2 and one of the andirons illustrated in fig. 3.

  • Figure 5
    Figure 5

    Chimney back, Marlboro Furnace, Frederick County, Virginia, ca. 1770. Cast iron. 34 1/2" x 31". (Courtesy, United States Army Engineer Museum, Fort Belvoir, Virginia; photo, Robert Hinds.)

  • Figure 6
    Figure 6

    Detail of A Survey of the Northern Neck of Virginia (London, 1745). (Courtesy Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.)

  • Figure 7
    Figure 7

    Side plate from a jamb stove, possibly Colebrookdale Furnace, Berks County, Pennsylvania, 1735–1755. Cast iron. 29" x 25". (Courtesy, Mercer Museum of the Bucks County Historical Society; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The stove represented by this side plate may have had an end plate like the example illustrated in fig. 8. 

  • Figure 8
    Figure 8

    End plate from a jamb stove, possibly Colebrookdale Furnace, Berks County, Pennsylvania, 1735–1755. Cast iron. 22" x 19". (Courtesy, Mercer Museum of the Bucks County Historical Society; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) This shield design was the seal of Philadelphia after 1701.

  • Figure 9
    Figure 9

    Francis Vivares after Thomas Smith of Derby, A View of the Lower Works at Coalbrookdale Furnace, 1758. Etching. 15" x 20 3/4". (Courtesy, © Trustees of the British Museum.)

  • Figure 10
    Figure 10

    Philip Loutherbourg, Coalbrookdale by Night, Shropshire, England, 1801. Oil on canvas. 26 3/4" x 42". (Courtesy, Science Museum/Science Society and Picture Library.) 

  • Figure 11
    Figure 11

    “DE LA CONSTRUCTION DES HAUTS-FOURNEAUX .” (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blast_furnace.)

  • Figure 12
    Figure 12

    Wilson Lowry after George Robertson, Inside of a Smelting House, Coalbrookdale Furnace, Shropshire, England, 1788. Engraving. 22" x 18". (Reproduced by permission of the Ironbridge Gorge Museum Trust.)

  • Figure 13
    Figure 13

    Back of the pattern illustrated in fig. 1. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 14
    Figure 14

    Detail of a batten on the pattern illustrated in fig. 1. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 15
    Figure 15

    Pattern for the end plate of a stove, carving attributed to the shop of John Pollard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1775–1785. Mahogany. 26" x 15". (Courtesy, Mercer Museum of the Bucks County Historical Society; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 16
    Figure 16

    Back of the pattern illustrated in fig. 15. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 17
    Figure 17

    Detail of the carving on the pattern illustrated in fig. 15, showing the almost perfectly flat ground. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 18
    Figure 18

    Pier table, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ca. 1765. Mahogany with white oak; marble. H. 32 1/2", W. 62 3/4", D. 31 5/8". (Courtesy, Philadelphia Museum of Art; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The pieces of figured marble veneer forming the top are bonded to a gray stone core with a roughly worked rear edge. The solid molded edges are attached to the core in a manner similar to cross-banded moldings on wooden tops. The top has a complex history of breakage and repair. Most of the veneer pieces at the ends and all of the side moldings are replaced; iron and steel splints have been added to the undersurface; and losses on the top have been filled.

  • Figure 19
    Figure 19

    Detail of the lion’s head on the pier table illustrated in fig. 18. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 20
    Figure 20

    Chimney back, probably Durham Furnace, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1728. Cast iron. 27" x 18 1/2". (Courtesy, Stenton, National Society of the Colonial Dames of America in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania; photo, Philadelphia Museum of Art.) The initials “I” and “L” were pressed into the casting sand after the pattern was removed. An identical chimney back with the same date, but without initials, has a history of use in Graeme Park. 

  • Figure 21
    Figure 21

    Chimney back, probably Durham Furnace, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, dated 1746 and 1756. Cast iron. 36" x 36". (Private collection.) A related chimney back with crossed swords has panels with the same dates. 

  • Figure 22
    Figure 22

    Side plate from a jamb stove, probably Durham Furnace, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, dated 1756. Cast iron. 26" x 28". (Courtesy, Mercer Museum of the Bucks County Historical Society; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The front plate of the stove represented by this side plate is also dated 1756.

  • Figure 23
    Figure 23

    Chimney back, Oxford Furnace, Warren County, New Jersey, 1746. Cast iron. 34 1/4" x 34". (Private collection; photo, Vince Cassaro.)

  • Figure 24
    Figure 24

    Frieze appliqué in the Assembly Room of the Pennsylvania State House. (Historic American Building Survey, Library of Congress.)

  • Figure 25
    Figure 25

    Frieze appliqué attributed to Samuel Harding in the stair tower of the Pennsylvania State House, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1753–1756. (Courtesy, Independence Hall National Historic Site; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 26
    Figure 26

    Desk-and-bookcase with carving attributed to the shop of Samuel Harding, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1750–1755. Walnut with tulip poplar, yellow pine, and white cedar. H. 112", W. 40 3/4", D. 23 3/4". (Chipstone Foundation; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 27
    Figure 27

    Detail of the tympanum appliqué on the desk-and-bookcase illustrated in fig. 26. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The appliqués on either side of the shell are so undercut that they make little contact with the tympanum and appear to float over it.

  • Figure 28
    Figure 28

    Chimney back, Oxford Furnace, Warren County, New Jersey, 1747. Cast iron. 32 1/4" x 29 1/4". (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum.)

  • Figure 29
    Figure 29

    Exterior truss on the steeple of Christ Church, Philadelphia, 1753. (Historic American Building Survey, Library of Congress.)

  • Figure 30
    Figure 30

    Franklin stove attributed to Warwick or Mount Pleasant Furnace, Chester or Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1742–1748. Cast iron. H. 31 1/2", W. 27 1/2", D. 35 3/4". (Courtesy, Mercer Museum of the Bucks County Historical Society; photo, Philadelphia Museum of Art.)

  • Figure 31
    Figure 31

    James Turner (act. 1744–1759) after Lewis Evans, design for Franklin’s Stove, illustrated in An Account of the New Invented Pennsylvanian Fire-places. (Courtesy, Library Company of Philadelphia.)

  • Figure 32
    Figure 32

    Detail of the front plate of the stove illustrated in fig. 30.

  • Figure 33
    Figure 33

    Details of the frieze appliqué illustrated in fig. 24. 

  • Figure 34
    Figure 34

    Tea table, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1745–1755. Mahogany. H. 27 1/2", W. 34 5/8", D. 21 1/8". (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum.) 

  • Figure 35
    Figure 35

    Detail of the carving on a side rail of the tea table illustrated in fig. 34.

  • Figure 36
    Figure 36

    Side plate of a jamb stove, New Jersey or Pennsylvania, 1760. Cast iron. H. 22 1/2", W. 23 1/2". (Courtesy, Mercer Museum of the Bucks County Historical Society; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 37
    Figure 37

    End plate of a jamb stove, New Jersey or Pennsylvania, 1760. Cast iron. H. 221/4", W. 18 1/4". (Henry C. Mercer, The Bible in Iron: Pictured Stoves and Stoveplates of the Pennsylvania Germans [1914; revised, corrected, and enlarged by Horace C. Mann, Doylestown, Pa.: Bucks County Historical Society, 1914], no. 88-c.)

  • Figure 38
    Figure 38

    Side chair, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ca. 1765. Mahogany. H. 41 1/8", W. 23 3/4", D. 21 3/4". (Chipstone Foundation; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 39
    Figure 39

    Detail of the side plate illustrated in fig. 36. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 40
    Figure 40

    Detail of the crest rail of the side chair illustrated in fig. 38. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 41
    Figure 41

    Chimney back, Aetna Furnace, Burlington County, New Jersey, 1767–1775. Cast iron. H. 26 1/4", W. 22 1/8". (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum.)

  • Figure 42
    Figure 42

    Chimney back, Aetna Furnace, Burlington County, New Jersey, 1767–1775. Cast iron. H. 31", W. 29 1/4". (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum.)

  • Figure 43
    Figure 43

    Pier glass attributed to the shop of James Reynolds, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1766–1775. White pine. 48" x 26". (Courtesy, Metropolitan Museum of Art.) 

  • Figure 44
    Figure 44

    Pattern for a six- or ten-plate stove attributed to the shop of James Reynolds, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1775–1790. Mahogany. Dimensions not recorded. (Private collection.)

  • Figure 45
    Figure 45

    Detail of the carving on the pattern illustrated in fig. 44.

  • Figure 46
    Figure 46

    Detail of the carving in the upper left corner of a parcel gilt pier glass made by James Reynolds for John and Elizabeth (Lloyd) Cadwalader in 1771. (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum.) 

  • Figure 47
    Figure 47

    Chimney back, Marlboro Furnace, Frederick County, Virginia, 1770–1775. Cast iron. Dimensions not recorded. (Courtesy, Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts.) The pattern that produced this chimney back was also used to cast stove plates like the example illustrated in fig. 48.

  • Figure 48
    Figure 48

    Side plate from a six-plate stove, Marlboro Furnace, Frederick County, Virginia, 1770–1775. Cast iron. 24" x 26". (Courtesy, Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts.) The pattern that produced this side plate was also used to cast chimney backs like the example illustrated in fig. 47.

  • Figure 49
    Figure 49

    Truss attributed to Bernard and Jugiez, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1769. (Courtesy, Metropolitan Museum of Art; photo, Luke Beckerdite.) This truss is on a chimneypiece from the Samuel Powel House installed in the American Wing of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. 

  • Figure 50
    Figure 50

    Side plate from a six-plate stove, Pottsgrove Furnace, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1770. Cast iron. 19 1/4" x 23 1/4". (Courtesy, Mercer Museum of the Bucks County Historical Society; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 51
    Figure 51

    Thomas Affleck, chest-on-chest , Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ca. 1770. Mahogany with tulip poplar and white cedar. H. 101", W. 46 3/8", D. 24". (Courtesy, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation; acquired through the generosity of Mr. and Mrs. Lewis B. Rumford II.)

  • Figure 52
    Figure 52

    Detail of the ornament of the chest-on-chest illustrated in fig. 51.

  • Figure 53
    Figure 53

    Side chair with carving attributed to Martin Jugiez, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ca. 1765. Mahogany. H. 39 1/2", W. 25 1/2", D. 23 1/2". (Chipstone Foundation; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 54
    Figure 54

    Design for a side chair shown on pl. 12 of the first and second editions of Thomas Chippendale’s The Gentleman and Cabinet-Maker’s Director (1754, 1755). (Courtesy, Winterthur Library.) This design appeared on pl. 14 in the third edition (1762).

  • Figure 55
    Figure 55

    Side plate from a six-plate stove, Batsto Furnace, Burlington County, New Jersey, 1766–1775. Cast iron. 19 3/4" x 22". (Henry C. Mercer, The Bible in Iron: Pictured Stoves and Stoveplates of the Pennsylvania Germans [Doylestown, Pa.: Bucks County Historical Society, 1914], no. 173.)

  • Figure 56
    Figure 56

    High chest of drawers with carving attributed to Bernard and Jugiez, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1770–1775. Mahogany with yellow pine, tulip poplar, and white cedar. H. 96 3/4", W. 45 1/2", D. 24 1/2". (Courtesy, Philadelphia Museum of Art; photo, Graydon Wood.)

  • Figure 57
    Figure 57

    Detail of the appliqué on the center drawer of the lower case of the high chest illustrated in fig. 56. 

  • Figure 58
    Figure 58

    Detail of a design for a pier glass illustrated on pl. 21 in Thomas Johnson’s One Hundred Fifty New Designs (collected editions, 1758 [untitled] and 1761 [titled]). (Courtesy, Winterthur Library; Printed Book and Periodical Collection.) Johnson sold the designs incrementally in groups between 1756 and 1757. (Jacob Simon, “Thomas Johnson’s ‘The Life of the Author,’” Furniture History 39 [2003]: 10.)

  • Figure 59
    Figure 59

    James Kirk (etcher) after Francis Barlow, The Dog and Piece of Flesh, published by Robert Sayer, London, ca. 1760. (Courtesy, © Trustees of the British Museum.)

  • Figure 60
    Figure 60

    Ten-plate stove, Elizabeth Furnace, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1769. Cast iron. H. 63 1/4", W. 44 1/4", D. 15". (Courtesy, Hershey Museum.)

  • Figure 61
    Figure 61

    Detail of the front plate of the stove illustrated in fig. 60.

  • Figure 62
    Figure 62

    Detail of the center tablet on a chimneypiece from the Samuel Powel House, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1770. (Courtesy, Philadelphia Museum of Art, gift of Mr. and Mrs. George D. Windner, 1926.)

  • Figure 63
    Figure 63

    Side plate from a six-plate stove, Elizabeth Furnace, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1769. Cast iron. 23" x 25". (Courtesy, Mercer Museum of the Bucks County Historical Society; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 64
    Figure 64

    Side plate from a six-plate stove, Elizabeth Furnace, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1769. Cast iron. Original dimensions, 18 1/2" x 23". (Courtesy, Historical Society of Berks County Museum & Library; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) 

  • Figure 65
    Figure 65

    Side plate from a six- or ten-plate stove, Reading Furnace, Chester County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1772. Cast iron. 23" x 30". (Courtesy, State Museum of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission.)

  • Figure 66
    Figure 66

    Side view of the stove illustrated in fig. 60.

  • Figure 67
    Figure 67

    Six-plate stove, Hopewell Furnace, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1772. Cast iron. H. 35", W. 41", D. 18". (Courtesy, Hopewell National Historic Site; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 68
    Figure 68

    Detail of a side plate of the stove illustrated in fig. 67. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 69
    Figure 69

    Detail of the back plate of the stove illustrated in fig. 67. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 70
    Figure 70

    Details showing a frieze appliqué on a chimneypiece from the Thomas Ringgold House, Chestertown, Maryland, and a design for a frieze illustrated on pl. 2 in Thomas Johnson, A New Book of Ornaments (1762). (Courtesy, Baltimore Museum of Art; photos, Gavin Ashworth [appliqué] and Victoria & Albert Museum [design].)

  • Figure 71
    Figure 71

    Pier table attributed to the shop of Benjamin Randolph with carving attributed to John Pollard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ca. 1769. Mahogany with yellow pine. H. 32 3/8", W. 48", D. 23 1/4". (Courtesy, Metropolitan Museum of Art; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 72
    Figure 72

    Detail of the side plate illustrated in fig. 68. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 73
    Figure 73

    Detail of the carving on the front rail of the pier table illustrated in fig. 71. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 74
    Figure 74

    Base of a high chest of drawers with carving attributed to the shop of John Pollard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ca. 1775. Mahogany with yellow pine and white cedar. H. 38", W. 45 5/8", D. 22 13/16". (Courtesy, Diplomatic Reception Rooms, U.S. Department of State.) 

  • Figure 75
    Figure 75

    Detail of the appliqué on the bottom center drawer of the high chest base illustrated in fig. 74.

  • Figure 76
    Figure 76

    Side plate from a six- or ten-plate stove, Durham Furnace, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1780. Cast iron. 25" x 31 3/4". (Courtesy, Mercer Museum of the Bucks County Historical Society; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 77
    Figure 77

    Detail of the right frieze appliqué on a chimneypiece from a Philadelphia town house installed in the Winterthur Museum, ca. 1770. (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum.) The frieze appliqués are attributed to John Pollard.

  • Figure 78
    Figure 78

    Title page of Animals of Various Species Accurately Drawn by Francis Barlow, part three of Various Birds and Beasts Drawn from Life (London, ca. 1660–1670). (Courtesy, Tate Museum.)

  • Figure 79
    Figure 79

    Pattern fragment, probably Durham Furnace, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, 1775–1780. (Courtesy, Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts.)

  • Figure 80
    Figure 80

    Side plate from a six-plate stove, possibly Durham Furnace, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, or Marlboro Furnace, Frederick County, Virginia, 1775–1780. Cast iron. 22" x 27 1/4". (Courtesy, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, gift of Wallace and Liza Gusler.)

  • Figure 81
    Figure 81

    End plate from a stove, possibly Durham Furnace, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, or Marlboro Furnace, Frederick County, Virginia, 1775–1780. Cast iron. 21 3/4" x 14 3/8". (Courtesy, Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts.)

  • Figure 82
    Figure 82

    End plate from a stove, possibly Durham Furnace, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, or Marlboro Furnace, Frederick County, Virginia, 1775–1780. Cast iron. 21 3/4" x 14 1/8". (Courtesy, Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts.)

  • Figure 83
    Figure 83

    End plate from a stove, possibly Durham Furnace, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, or Marlboro Furnace, Frederick County, Virginia, 1775–1780. Cast iron. 23 3/4" x 14". (Courtesy, Mercer Museum of the Bucks County Historical Society; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 84
    Figure 84

    Design for a chimneypiece illustrated on pl. 7 in Matthias Lock and Henry Copland, A New Book of Ornaments (1752). (Courtesy, Winterthur Library; Printed Book and Periodical Collection.)

  • Figure 85
    Figure 85

    Design for a chimneypiece illustrated on pl. 4 in Matthias Lock and Henry Copland, A New Book of Ornaments (1752). (Courtesy, Winterthur Library; Printed Book and Periodical Collection.)

  • Figure 86
    Figure 86

    Side plate from a six-plate stove, Batsto Furnace, Burlington County, New Jersey, ca. 1772. Cast iron. 23" x 25 1/2". (Courtesy, Mercer Museum of the Bucks County Historical Society; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 87
    Figure 87

    Francis Barlow, “The Fowler and the Ringdove,” London, ca. 1687. 

  • Figure 88
    Figure 88

    Side chair with carving attributed to John Pollard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ca. 1770. Mahogany with yellow pine. H. 38 1/2". (Private collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 89
    Figure 89

    Detail of the carving on the crest and left stile of the side chair illustrated in fig. 88. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 90
    Figure 90

    Chimney back, Batsto Furnace, Burlington County, New Jersey, 1770–1775. Cast iron. 26 1/4" x 22 1/4". (Courtesy, New Jersey State Museum; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 91
    Figure 91

    Looking glass with carving attributed to the shop of John Pollard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1770–1780. Mahogany with white pine. Dimensions not recorded. (Private collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 92
    Figure 92

    Detail of the left garland on the chimney back illustrated in fig. 90 and the left garland on the looking glass illustrated in fig. 91. (Photos, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 93
    Figure 93

    Side plate from a ten-plate stove, Sally Ann Furnace, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1795. Cast iron. 26" x 35". (Courtesy, Metropolitan Museum of Art, purchase, Dobson Foundation, Inc., gift.)

  • Figure 94
    Figure 94

    Abraham Buzaglo, stove, London, 1770. Cast iron. H. 88 1/2", W. 35 1/8", D. 21 11/16". (The Commonwealth of Virginia on loan to the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation; photo, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.)

  • Figure 95
    Figure 95

    A Buzaglo, Patent Warming Machine Maker to Their Majesties, Opposite Somerset House Strand, London, ca. 1770. Black and white line engraving. (Courtesy, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation; gift of Reverend Richard Webster Meyers, 1992-145.)

  • Figure 96
    Figure 96

    Tall case clock, Philadelphia, 1775–1785. Mahogany with tulip poplar. Dimensions not recorded. (Courtesy, Philip Bradley Antiques.)

  • Figure 97
    Figure 97

    Details of the carving on a quarter-column of the tall case clock illustrated in fig. 96.

  • Figure 98
    Figure 98

    Side plate from a six- or ten-plate stove, Mount Aetna Furnace, Washington County, Maryland, 1775–1785. Cast iron. Dimensions not recorded. (Courtesy, Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts.)

  • Figure 99
    Figure 99

    Six-plate stove, Batsto Furnace, Burlington County, New Jersey, 1780–1790. Cast iron. Dimensions not recorded. (Courtesy, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, State Park Service, Batsto Village; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 100
    Figure 100

    Detail of a side plate of the stove illustrated in fig. 99. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.) 

  • Figure 101
    Figure 101

    Detail of the carving on the pattern illustrated in fig. 1. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 102
    Figure 102

    Detail of the carving on the pattern illustrated in fig. 1. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 103
    Figure 103

    Detail of the carving on the pattern illustrated in fig. 1. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 104
    Figure 104

    Ceiling design by Robert Adam, 1769. (Courtesy, Victoria & Albert Museum.)

  • Figure 105
    Figure 105

    Side plate from a six-plate stove, probably Berkshire Furnace, Berkshire County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1782. Cast iron. 16 1/2" x 24". (Courtesy, Mercer Museum of the Bucks County Historical Society; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The stove represented by this side plate may have had an end plate like the example illustrated in fig. 106.

  • Figure 106
    Figure 106

    End plate from a stove, probably Berkshire Furnace, Berkshire County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1782. Cast iron. 22 1/2" x 15". (Courtesy, Mercer Museum of the Bucks County Historical Society; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The stove represented by this end plate may have had side plates like the example illustrated in fig. 105.

  • Figure 107
    Figure 107

    Side plate from a six- or ten-plate stove, Berkshire Furnace, Berks County, Pennsylvania, 1780–1790. Cast iron. 22 1/2" x 32 1/4". (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum.) The stove represented by this side plate had an end plate like the example illustrated in fig. 108.

  • Figure 108
    Figure 108

    End plate from a six-plate stove, Berkshire Furnace, Berks County, Pennsylvania, 1780–1790. Cast iron. 25" x 15 1/2". (Courtesy, Mercer Museum of the Bucks County Historical Society, photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The stove represented by this end plate had side plates like the example illustrated in fig. 107.

  • Figure 109
    Figure 109

    Tall case clock, Philadelphia, 1770–1780. Sabieu with tulip poplar. H. 104". (Courtesy, Philip Bradley Antiques.)

  • Figure 110
    Figure 110

    Detail of the hood of the tall case clock illustrated in fig. 109.