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Lisa Minardi
Adam Hains and the Philadelphia-Reading Connection

American Furniture 2014

Full Article
Contents
  • Figure 1
    Figure 1

    Card table, labeled by Adam Hains (1768–1846), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ca. 1795. Mahogany, satinwood, and mixed-wood and mastic inlay with oak (hinged rail) and white pine (inner frame). H. 29 1/2", W. 35 1/4", D. 18". (Courtesy, Steven M. Still Antiques; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) 

  • Figure 2
    Figure 2

    Pembroke table, branded by Adam Hains (1768–1846), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ca. 1788. Mahogany with tulip poplar, white cedar (glue blocks), and white oak (drawer support). H. 28", W. 20 1/2" (closed), D. 29 3/4". (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum, 1957.669; photo, Laszlo Bodo.) 

  • Figure 3
    Figure 3

    Detail of the brand on the drawer of the table illustrated in fig. 2. (Photo, Laszlo Bodo.) 

  • Figure 4
    Figure 4

    Detail of the drawer construction of the table illustrated in fig. 2. (Photo, Laszlo Bodo.) 

  • Figure 5
    Figure 5

    Detail of the drawer underside of the table illustrated in fig. 2. (Photo, Laszlo Bodo.) 

  • Figure 6
    Figure 6

    Detail of the label on the table illustrated in fig. 1. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 7
    Figure 7

    Card table, attributed to Adam Hains (1768–1846), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ca. 1795. Mahogany, satinwood, and mixed-wood and mastic inlay with oak (hinged rail) and white pine (inner frame). H. 29 1/2", W. 35 1/4", D. 18". (Courtesy, Steven M. Still Antiques; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) 

  • Figure 8
    Figure 8

    Detail of the floral inlay on the table illustrated in fig. 1. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 9
    Figure 9

    Detail of the oval inlay on the table illustrated in fig. 1. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 10
    Figure 10

    Detail of the bellflower inlay on the table illustrated in fig. 1. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 11
    Figure 11

    Pier table, attributed to Baltimore, Maryland, ca. 1800. Mahogany, satinwood, and mixed-wood inlay with white pine and tulip poplar. H. 34 1/2", W. 39 3/4", D. 20 1/8". (Courtesy, Baltimore Museum of Art, gift of Angelica Yonge Pearre, 1982.143.)

  • Figure 12
    Figure 12

    Pier table, attributed to Adam Hains (1768–1846), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ca. 1795. Mahogany, satinwood, and mixed-wood and mastic inlay with hard pine (back rail). H. 28 5/8", W. 36 1/8", D. 17 1/2". (Private collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) The applied cuffs are restored.

  • Figure 13
    Figure 13

    Detail of the inlay on the table illustrated in fig. 12. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 14
    Figure 14

    Detail of the inlay on the table illustrated in fig. 12. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 15
    Figure 15

    Card table, attributed to Adam Hains (1768–1846), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ca. 1795. Mahogany, satinwood, and mixed-wood inlay with yellow pine (subtop, inner frame rails, and blocks) and white oak (hinged rail). H. 29 1/2", W. 36 1/2", D. 17 7/8". (Courtesy, Yale University Art Gallery, Mabel Brady Garvan Collection, 1930.2010.) 

  • Figure 16
    Figure 16

    Detail of the floral inlay on the table illustrated in fig. 15. 

  • Figure 17
    Figure 17

    Detail of the floral inlay on the table illustrated in fig. 15. 

  • Figure 18
    Figure 18

    Detail of the griffin inlay on the table illustrated in fig. 15. 

  • Figure 19
    Figure 19

    Design for a frieze or tablet illustrated as plate 56 in Thomas Sheraton’s The Cabinet-Maker and Upholsterer’s Drawing-Book (London: T. Bensley, 1791–1794). (Courtesy, Winterthur Library, Printed Book and Periodical Collection; photo, James Schneck.)

  • Figure 20
    Figure 20

    Detail of the griffin carving on a long rifle, Christian Oerter (1747–1777), Christian’s Spring, Northampton County, Pennsylvania, 1775. Maple with iron, brass, steel, silver, and horn. (Courtesy, private collection.)

  • Figure 21
    Figure 21

    House blessing, Lehigh or Northampton County, Pennsylvania, 1803. Watercolor and ink on laid paper. 13" x 15 1/2". (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum, 1957.1190; photo, James Schneck.)

  • Figure 22
    Figure 22

    Side chair, attributed to John Aitken (d. 1839), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1797. Mahogany and lightwood inlay. H. 37 1/4", W. 20 5/8", D. 18 3/4". (Courtesy, Mount Vernon Ladies’ Association; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 23
    Figure 23

    Designs for chair backs illustrated as plate 36 in Thomas Sheraton’s The Cabinet-Maker and Upholsterer’s Drawing-Book (London: T. Bensley, 1791–1794). (Courtesy, Winterthur Library, Printed Book and Periodical Collection; photo, James Schneck.)

  • Figure 24
    Figure 24

    Side chair, probably by Adam Hains (1768–1846), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ca. 1800. Materials and dimensions unrecorded. (Whereabouts unknown. Photo reproduced from William MacPherson Hornor Jr., Blue Book Philadelphia Furniture [Philadelphia: the author, 1935], pl. 416.)

  • Figure 25
    Figure 25

    Armchair, possibly by Adam Hains (1768–1846), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1797. Mahogany. H. 36", W. 22", D. 18". (Whereabouts unknown. Photo, Winterthur Library, Decorative Arts Photographic Collection.)

  • Figure 26
    Figure 26

    John Eckstein (1736–1817), Justus Heinrich Christian Helmuth, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ca. 1795. Oil on canvas. 31" x 28". (Courtesy, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution.)

  • Figure 27
    Figure 27

    Armchair, possibly by Adam Hains (1768–1846), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ca. 1800. Materials and dimensions unrecorded. (Whereabouts unknown. Photo, Muhlenberg College, Special Collections and Archives.)

  • Figure 28
    Figure 28

    Armchair, attributed to Adam Hains (1768–1846), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ca. 1795. Mahogany with ash. H. 33 3/4", W. 23 1/4", D. 19 1/4". (Courtesy, Historic New England, gift of the children of Arthur and Susan Cabot Lyman, 1966.121.)

  • Figure 29
    Figure 29

    Furnishings in the Bow Parlor at The Vale, Waltham, Massachusetts, built 1793. Photograph by A. H. Folsom, 1884. (Courtesy, Historic New England.)

  • Figure 30
    Figure 30

    Designs for chairs illustrated as plate 6 in the appendix of Thomas Sheraton’s The ­Cabinet-Maker and Upholsterer’s Drawing-Book (London: T. Bensley, 1791–1794). (Courtesy, Winterthur Library, Printed Book and Periodical Collection; photo, James Schneck.)

  • Figure 31
    Figure 31

    Armchair, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ca. 1800. Ash with paint and gilding. H. 36 1/2", W. 20 1/2", D. 215/8". (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum, 1991.66; photo, James Schneck.) 

  • Figure 32
    Figure 32

    Armchair, attributed to Adam Hains (1768–1846) with under-upholstery attributed to George Bertault, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ca. 1795. Mahogany with ash. H. 33 3/4", W. 23 1/4", D. 19 1/4". (Courtesy, Historic New England, gift of the children of Arthur and Susan Cabot Lyman, 1966.124.)

  • Figure 33
    Figure 33

    Federal Hall: The Seat of Congress, printed by Amos Doolittle after a drawing by Pierre LaCour, New Haven, Connecticut, 1790. Watercolor and ink on wove paper. 18 1/4" x 14 1/2". (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum, 1957.816.)

  • Figure 34
    Figure 34

    Joseph Wright, Frederick Augustus Conrad Muhlenberg, New York, 1790. Oil on canvas with applied wood strip. 47" x 37" (including frame). (Courtesy, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution.) A strip of wood 1 3/8" wide was added to the canvas at the left edge and painted by Wright.

  • Figure 35
    Figure 35

    Sofa, labeled by Adam Hains (1768–1846), with under-upholstery attributed to George Bertault, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ca. 1800. Mahogany with beech. H. 36", W. 72", D. 30". (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum, 1978.0159; photo, James Schneck.) The seat’s under-­upholstery is a later replacement.

  • Figure 36
    Figure 36

    Detail of the carving on the sofa illustrated in fig. 35. 

  • Figure 37
    Figure 37

    Detail of an arm on the sofa illustrated in fig. 35. 

  • Figure 38
    Figure 38

    End view of the sofa illustrated in fig. 35. (Photo, James Schneck.) The rear leg seen here is an old replacement matching the two original rear legs.

  • Figure 39
    Figure 39

    Card table, attributed to Jacob Wayne (1760–1857), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1796. Mahogany with mixed-wood inlay. H. 29", W. 36", D. unrecorded. (Whereabouts unknown. Image from Parke-Bernet Galleries, New York, The Americana Collection of the Late Mrs. J. Amory Haskell, part 4, November 8–11, 1944, lot 192.)

  • Figure 40
    Figure 40

    Needlework picture, by Caroline E. Bieber (1827–1885) under the instruction of Elizabeth Baish (Hains) Mason (1797–1875), Kutztown, Berks County, Pennsylvania, 1843. Wool and silk on linen. 22 1/4" x 28 1/2". (Courtesy, Philadelphia Museum of Art, gift of Mr. and Mrs. Victor L. Johnson, 1999-173-1.)

  • Figure 41
    Figure 41

    Date stone from St. John’s Church, Pricetown, Berks County, Pennsylvania, built 1841. (Photo, Mark Maxwell.)

  • Figure 42
    Figure 42

    Drawing of the Berks County courthouse, Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1820. Ink on wove paper. 14" x 10 1/4". (Courtesy, Berks History Center, Reading, Pa.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 43
    Figure 43

    Portrait of Daniel Udree, Berks County, Pennsylvania, 1799. Oil on canvas. 72" x 39". (Courtesy, Berks History Center, Reading, Pa.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 44
    Figure 44

    Detail of the portrait illustrated in fig. 43. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 45
    Figure 45

    Trinity Lutheran Church, Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, built 1791–1794. Photo, ca. 1925. (Courtesy, Berks History Center, Reading, Pa.)

  • Figure 46
    Figure 46

    Detail from A View of Reading, drawn by F. A. Holzwart, printed by George Lehman and Peter Duval, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1837. Ink on wove paper. 20" x 28". (Courtesy, Berks History Center, Reading, Pa.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 47
    Figure 47

    Tall clock, case attributed to John Cunnius (1733–1808), movement signed by Daniel Oyster (1766–1845), Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1805. Walnut with white pine. H. 97 3/8", W. 21 5/8", D. 10 5/8". (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum, 1959.2807; photo, Laszlo Bodo.) 

  • Figure 48
    Figure 48

    Portrait miniature of George Heller, Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1840. Watercolor on ivory. 2 1/4" x 2". (Courtesy, Berks History Center, Reading, Pa.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) 

  • Figures 49 & 50
    Figures 49 & 50

    Dorothea Otto, portraits of Portraits of Dr. Bodo and Catharina, Pennsylvania, ca. 1750. Oil on canvas. 30" x 24". (Courtesy, Berks History Center, Reading, Pa.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) 

  • Figure 51
    Figure 51

    Tall clock, case signed by Daniel Rhein (1778–1868) and Henry Quast (1790–1870 or later), Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, 1809. Mahogany and mixed-wood inlay with white pine. H. 103", W. 18 1/2", D. 10 1/4". (Courtesy, Berks History Center, Reading, Pa., bequest of John J. Snyder Jr.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) 

  • Figure 52
    Figure 52

    Detail of the inlay on the clock illustrated in fig. 51. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 53
    Figure 53

    Tall clock, case attributed to Daniel Rhein (1778–1868), Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1810. Mahogany and mixed-wood inlay with white pine. H. 103", W. 22", D. 10 3/4". (Courtesy, Berks History Center, Reading, Pa., bequest of John J. Snyder Jr.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) 

  • Figure 54
    Figure 54

    Detail of the inlay on the clock illustrated in fig. 53. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 55
    Figure 55

    Tall clock, case attributed to Daniel Rhein (1778–1868), movement signed by Daniel Rose (1749–1827), Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1805. Mahogany with satinwood and mixed-wood inlay and pine. H. 112", W. 22", D. 11". (Private collection; photo, Gary R. Sullivan Antiques.)

  • Figure 56
    Figure 56

    Detail of the hood on the clock illustrated in fig. 55.

  • Figure 57
    Figure 57

    Slant-front desk, attributed to Daniel Rhein (1778–1868), Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1810. Mahogany and light-wood inlay with white pine and tulip poplar. H. 42 1/2", W. 44", D. 21 1/8". (Courtesy, Berks History Center, Reading, Pa., bequest of John J. Snyder Jr.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) 

  • Figure 58
    Figure 58

    Detail of the inlay on the desk illustrated in fig. 57. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figures 59 & 60
    Figures 59 & 60

    Portraits of Matthias and Maria Salome Muhlenberg Richards, probably Pennsylvania, ca. 1790. (Photos reproduced from Henrietta Meier Oakley and John Christopher Schwab, Muhlenberg Album [New Haven, Conn.: the authors, 1910].) 

  • Figure 61
    Figure 61

    Card table, attributed to Daniel Rhein (1778–1868), Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1810. Satinwood, mahogany, and mixed-wood inlay with tulip poplar and white pine. H. 30", W. 36 1/2", D. 17 3/4". (Private collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) 

  • Figure 62
    Figure 62

    Card table, attributed to Daniel Rhein (1778–1868), Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1800. Satinwood, mahogany, and mixed-wood inlay with tulip poplar and white pine. H. 30", W. 36 1/2", D. 17 3/4". (Private collection; photo, Sotheby’s.) 

  • Figure 63
    Figure 63

    Detail of the inlay on the table illustrated in fig. 62. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 64
    Figure 64

    Detail of the inlay on the table illustrated in fig. 66. (Photo, Pook & Pook.)

  • Figure 65
    Figure 65

    Card table, attributed to Daniel Rhein (1778–1868), Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1810. Satinwood, mahogany, and mixed-wood inlay with tulip poplar and white pine. H. 30", W. 36 1/4", D. 17 1/2". (Private collection; photo, Leigh Keno Antiques.) 

  • Figure 66
    Figure 66

    Card table, attributed to Daniel Rhein (1778–1868), Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1810. Satinwood, mahogany, and mixed-wood inlay with tulip poplar and white pine. H. 30", W. 36 1/4", D. 17 1/2". (Private collection; photo, Pook & Pook.) 

  • Figure 67
    Figure 67

    Detail of the underside of the table illustrated in fig. 61. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 68
    Figure 68

    Top of the table illustrated in fig. 61. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 69
    Figure 69

    Sideboard, attributed to Daniel Rhein (1778–1868), Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1810. Mahogany, satinwood, and mixed-wood inlay with tulip poplar and white pine. H. 38", W. 78", D. 24 3/4". (Private collection; photo, Gavin Ashworth.) 

  • Figure 70
    Figure 70

    Detail of the inlay on the sideboard illustrated in fig. 69. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 71
    Figure 71

    Detail of the inlay on the sideboard illustrated in fig. 69. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 72
    Figure 72

    Square piano, labeled by John Haberacker (1780–1846), case attributed to Daniel Rhein (1778–1868), Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1810. Mahogany with mahogany and satinwood veneer, ivory, and ebony. H. 33 5/8", W. 64", D. 22 5/8". (Courtesy, Historic RittenhouseTown; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 73
    Figure 73

    Detail of the inlay on the piano illustrated in fig. 72. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 74
    Figure 74

    Chest of drawers with looking glass, labeled by Daniel Rhein (1778–1868), Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1830. Mahogany veneer with tulip poplar, pine, and chestnut. H. 75 3/4", W. 41 1/8", D. 23 1/2". (Private collection; photo, Winterthur Library, Decorative Arts Photographic Collection.)

  • Figure 75
    Figure 75

    Tall clock, case attributed to Daniel Rhein (1778–1868), movement signed by Benjamin Witman (1774–1857), Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1805. Mahogany and mixed-wood inlay with white pine. H. 103", W. 22", D. 10 3/4". (Private collection; photo, Pook & Pook.) 

  • Figure 76
    Figure 76

    Dial of the clock illustrated in fig. 75, painted decoration probably by William Witman (1770–1826), Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1805. (Photo, Philip H. Bradley Co.)

  • Figure 77
    Figure 77

    Dial of the clock illustrated in fig. 47, painted decoration probably by William Witman (1770–1826), Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1805. (Photo, Winterthur Museum.)

  • Figure 78
    Figure 78

    Advertisement by Jacob Witman in the Impartial Reading Herald, Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, September 16, 1796. (Courtesy, Berks History Center, Reading, Pa.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 79
    Figure 79

    Advertisement by Benjamin Witman in the Impartial Reading Herald, Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, September 16, 1796. (Courtesy, Berks History Center, Reading, Pa.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 80
    Figure 80

    Advertisement by William Witman in the Impartial Reading Herald, Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, July 21, 1796. (Courtesy, Berks History Center, Reading, Pa.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 81
    Figure 81

    Detail of a tall clock, movement by George Faber (1778–1834), Reading, Berks County or Sumneytown, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania; painted decoration probably by William Witman (1770–1826), Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, 1809. Cherry, walnut, and mixed-wood inlay with pine. H. 102 5/8", W. 23 5/8", D. 12 1/2". (Whereabouts unknown. Photo, Winterthur Library, Decorative Arts Photographic Collection.) 

  • Figure 82
    Figure 82

    Detail of a drawing installed in the sidelight of the clock illustrated in fig. 81, probably by William Witman (1770–1826), Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, 1809. Watercolor and ink on paper. Dimensions unrecorded. (Photo, Winterthur Library, Decorative Arts Photographic Collection.)

  • Figure 83
    Figure 83

    Portrait of Joseph Hiester, signed by Jacob Witman (1769–1798), Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, 1795. Oil on canvas. 36" x 30 1/2". (Courtesy, Berks History Center, Reading, Pa.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 84
    Figure 84

    Detail of the portrait illustrated in fig. 83. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 85
    Figure 85

    Buttons owned by Adam Witman and Joseph Hiester, ca. 1780. Silver. Diam. 1". (Courtesy, Berks History Center, Reading, Pa.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 86
    Figure 86

    Broadside for the gubernatorial campaign of Joseph Hiester, Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1820. Ink on wove paper. 8" x 6". (Courtesy, Berks History Center, Reading, Pa.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 87
    Figure 87

    Portrait of Elizabeth (Witman) Hiester, attributed to Jacob Witman (1769–1798), Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1795. Oil on canvas. 36" x 30". (Courtesy, Berks History Center, Reading, Pa.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 88
    Figure 88

    Portrait of Rebecca or Mary Elizabeth Hiester, attributed to Jacob Witman (1769–1798), Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1795. Oil on canvas. 26 1/2" x 20 1/2". (Courtesy, Berks History Center, Reading, Pa.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 89
    Figure 89

    Portrait of Rebecca or Mary Elizabeth Hiester, attributed to Jacob Witman (1769–1798), Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1795. Oil on canvas. 26 1/2" x 20 1/2". (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum, 2012.6; photo, James Schneck.)

  • Figure 90
    Figure 90

    Sampler, by Mary Elizabeth Hiester (1784–1806), Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, 1795. Silk on linen. 19 1/2" x 16 1/2". (Courtesy, Winterthur Museum; photo, James Schneck.)

  • Figure 91
    Figure 91

    Portrait miniature of Henry Augustus Muhlenberg, by James Peale (1749–1831), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1804. Watercolor on ivory. Dimensions unrecorded. (Private collection; photo, Glenn Holcombe.)

  • Figure 92
    Figure 92

    Portrait of Peter Nagle, attributed to Jacob Witman (1769–1798), Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1795. Oil on canvas. 29 3/4" x 24 3/4". (Courtesy, Berks History Center, Reading, Pa.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 93
    Figure 93

    Portrait of Daniel Rose, signed by Jacob Witman (1769–1798), Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1795. Oil on canvas. 64" x 40 1/2". (Courtesy, Berks History Center, Reading, Pa.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 94
    Figure 94

    Detail of the landscape in the portrait illustrated in fig. 93. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 95
    Figure 95

    Detail of the table in the portrait illustrated in fig. 93. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 96
    Figure 96

    Detail of the signature in the portrait illustrated in fig. 93. (Photo, Gavin Ashworth.)

  • Figure 97
    Figure 97

    Portrait of a young woman (possibly Mary or Margaret Rose), attributed to Jacob Witman (1769–1798), Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, ca. 1795. Oil on canvas. 35 3/4" x 30 1/4". (Courtesy, Berks History Center, Reading, Pa.; photo, Gavin Ashworth.)