Ellen Paul Denker
Parian Porcelain Statuary: American Sculptors and the Introduction of
Art in American Ceramics
Developed by English potters in the 1840s, parian porcelain statuary made
sculpture available for the homes of the new, middle class in the same
way that engravings duplicated famous paintings. The success of the infant
industrial revolution in creating a more comfortable lifestyle for merchants
and managers also provided these consumers with art for the home, a type
of material culture previously owned only by the courtly class. Much like
today, the desire for consumer goods was developed and encouraged by associating
their ownership with the perception of a better life. During the nineteenth
century, this life was defined as moral, educated, and enlightened. The
proper Victorian family in its parlor was expected to be surrounded by
trophies which showed its interest in literature, the fine arts, and travel.
The idea of making many copies of a single important work of art was well
established by the time parian porcelain statuary came on the scene. Engravings
of famous paintings had long been available, and any number of examples
from the first half of the nineteenth century could be cited. Asher B.
Durands engraving of Ariadne, after the painting by John
Vanderlyn, came on the market in 1835. The Portland Vase is another example.
The Duchess of Portland created a stir by acquiring the original ancient
cameo-glass vase from the Barberini Palace in the late 1700s. Wedgwoods
stoneware copy soon followed and continued to be offered for many years
into the nineteenth century in a variety of colors to coordinate with
any interior. Historians call this the commodification of art.
For the companies that made and/or marketed the goods, this might be an
appropriate characterization. For those who bought the wares, however,
there were deeper meanings of identity and possession. The buyer of the
copy also acquired the sensation of owning the original and shared its
possession with any number of family, friends, and acquaintances who recognized
Sculpture, or its full-scale reproduction, was more difficult to own than
prints or pottery because of its size, weight, cost, and scarcity. The
development of parian porcelain statuary in England offered a new dimension
for the parlor. Named after a type of marble, the fine white, unglazed
parian porcelain suitably mimicked the ancient sculptural material. Sculpture,
which had been reproduced only in engravings, was now available in the
round, reduced in size but retaining its form and proportion. Many conditions
came together to make parian porcelain statuary successful during the
Discoveries in clay chemistry and ceramic technology in the pottery industry
provided the fabric. The rise of the art union lotteries as purveyors
of fine art helped to create the market. And the proliferation of art
magazines encouraged, among other things, the development of English sculpture
as an art form worthy of appreciation and support.
From the beginning, parian was marketed as an art material that would
satisfy the tastes of the new middle class, and the English potteries
produced subjects that appealed to these buyersbusts of royalty
and important writers, politicians, and artists; reproductions of antique
and contemporary sculpture; and, later, the sentimental Victorian subjects
developed by factory modelers from popular literature and paintings.
English parian was available in America from the time of its introduction
in England, and American sculptors soon took advantage of parian as a
medium for promoting their skills and reaping some financial benefit from
their talents (fig. 1).
Eventually American manufacturers developed the materials and techniques
and cultivated the artists to produce a homegrown product. Before the
invention of parian ware, nearly all of the modeling for manufactured
ceramics, particularly in England and America, was done by artisans trained
through the apprentice system within the factories. With parian, however,
ceramic manufacturers discovered the monetary rewards of attaching their
production to fine art.
They also understood the benefits that could be drawn from employing artisans
with a formal education in the arts. The importance of designers to the
ceramic industry and the need for academies to train them began with the
marriage of ceramic art and the parian industry. Although parian had largely
passed from fashion by the late 1880s, its legacy in terms of the new
attitudes toward art among manufacturers was only beginning to be felt
in the ceramic industry. As schools of ceramic art and design increased
in number and sophistication during the twentieth century, so did the
impact on ceramics as one of the applied arts.
Figurines have long been part of the potters repertoire, although
a distinct fashion for them developed among the courtly class in the mid-eighteenth
century. Important European potteriesSevres, Meissen, Derbymade
a variety of white (unglazed or biscuit) and decorated models to embellish
banquet tables and palace mantels. By the early 1800s, figures in earthenware
of mediocre quality were being turned out in great quantity from the Staffordshire
potteries for the English middle class. But several prominent potteries
such as Minton, Worcester, and Copeland & Garrett had continued to
make the white biscuit figures and to search for a high-quality clay body
that would resist the soiling that came from handling the unglazed surface.
At the same time, modelers and mold makers in the English industry had
developed their crafts to the highest level. Although the chemistry of
slip casting had been discovered in the previous century, the dynamics
of modeling and mold making were greatly refined during the second quarter
of the nineteenth century.
Most sculptural ceramic figures are extremely complex and cannot be accommodated
by a single mold. The mold maker had to dissect the model into manageable
parts that were later joined by the repairer when the slip-cast parts
were in the green state. The joints between parts were carefully hidden
and smoothed so that the viewer rarely noticed the number of pieces that
had been combined to create the final figure.
Modelers were considered the most skilled of this group of craftsmen.
Working in plaster or clay, they were required to copy an existing model
so that the figure that resulted would have the proper proportions even
after the fire had reduced the green clay by twelve to fifteen percent.
The work of the modelers was greatly aided by Benjamin Chevertons
reducing machine (essentially a three-dimensional pantagraph) that was
patented in 1844.2
By improving the fidelity of these statuary reproductions to the originals,
Chevertons machine allowed parian porcelain to do for sculpture
what engraving had done for paintingmake facsimiles available for
display, ornament, and study in the home.
Although there is still dispute over which pottery first introduced parian
porcelain statuary, several English firms were making figures in this
new material by 1845. Various names were used in the earliest years: Statuary
Porcelain at Copeland & Garrett; Parian at Minton;
and Carrara at Wedgwood. Both Parian and Carrara
referred to the desirable marble, which the ceramic body was intended
to imitate. By 1851, the term Parian was in general use. Formulas
for the clay body itself were as numerous as were the potteries that made
parian, but they all shared the basic ingredients of feldspar in concentrations
of thirty to sixty-five percent, Cornish clay, and Cornish stone. Some
recipes also included ball clay, flint glass, barium carbonate, or frit,
but it was feldspar that gave parian its distinctive hardness, smooth
surface, and pale creamy translucency.
The new material was hailed as being far more successful in duplicating
the look and feel of marble than any previous biscuit body both in the
way it transmitted light and in the detail possible from its fine texture.
In 1851, the Illustrated London News reported that the introduction
of the comparatively new material of Parian for statuettes and ornaments
generally, has given a feeling of art to those productions which the old
bisque body could never have done. The rich transparent tone of the Parian,
giving the reflected light and semi-opaque shadows of marble, contrasts
so unmistakably with the grey looking tint and hard effect of the bisque,
that no one can wonder that the latter is now completely superceded in
English sculptor and royal academician John Gibson, the first artist to
give permission for his work to be translated into parian, declared that
it was the best material, next to Marble when he was introduced
to it on a tour of the Staffordshire potteries in 1845.4
Marketing English Sculpture through Parian
The happy alliance of artist, manufacturer, art magazine, and art union
created the commercial success of parian porcelain statuary. Gibsons
remark was made during a meeting arranged by the editor of the Art Journal
that included Gibson and several other sculptors, Thomas Battam of Copelands
staff, and agents of the Art Union of London. The meeting resulted in
the production at Copelands of fifty copies of Gibsons diploma
work, Narcissus, for distribution as lottery prizes by the Art Union.
By combining the morality of art with the suspense of a lottery, art unions
satisfied both the middle-class desire for respectability and the ability
to obtain it at relatively small cost.
The success of the art unions in popularizing contemporary British and
European art was based largely on their ability to educate the public.
The organizers recognized two types of persons who needed nurturing: The
first consists of those who, although possessed of taste are not wealthy;
the other are those of ample means, but who . . . have hitherto evinced
little interest in the progress of the arts and little taste for their
The contemplation of art, it was believed, would lift both types to a
higher moral plane. The influence of the Fine Arts in humanizing
and refining, in purifying the thoughts and raising the sources of gratification
in man, is so universally felt and admitted, that it is hardly necessary
now to urge it, noted the Art Union of London in 1840.6
In addition to patronizing the art unions, Victorian Britons were also
attracted to fine art and parian through the regional, national, and international
fairs held in London and other British centers, and by the attention focused
on the annual academy exhibitions in England and Scotland. Much publicity
in the popular and art presses was generated by the strong showings made
by parian manufacturers at these exhibitions. The largest show of parian
was made at the Great Exhibition, London, in 1851, where more than ten
manufacturers mounted displays of the porcelain statuary.
The Greek Slave
Of all the contemporary sculpture that was reproduced in parian porcelain
during this period, Hiram Powers Greek Slave was peerless
in terms of its own fame and in the recognition that it continued to draw
from its many reproductions. In 1843, Powers (18051873), an American
sculptor, executed the first Greek Slave and six full-size marble
replicas that were produced by 1866. The chained maiden, meant to symbolize
the young Christian women auctioned by the Turks during the Greek revolution,
was shown first in London in 1845 and subsequently appeared at several
international fairs and many galleries there and in the United States.
One statue toured a number of American cities between 1847 and 1852, from
New York to St. Louis and Detroit to New Orleans. As a result of its widespread
renown, the statue engendered innumerable reviews and a fair number of
poems extolling its spirituality and chastity despite, or perhaps because
of, its naked and manacled form. The grey-headed man, the youth,
the matron, and the maid alike yield themselves to the magic of its power,
and gaze upon it in silent and reverential admiration, observed
a reporter for the Courier and Enquirer of the statues exhibition
in New York City in 1847.7
Reproductions of the Greek Slave in plaster, parian, bronze, crude
marble, and alabaster in several reduced sizes were extraordinarily popular.
Writing in Godeys Ladys Book, Mrs. Merrifield advised
that a plaster copy of the figure should be found on the toilette
of every young lady who is desirous of obtaining a knowledge of the proportions
and beauties of the figure.8
Several British potteries made small-scale copies, but the earliest and
perhaps best was Mintons (fig. 2).
Made originally for Summerlys Art Manufacturers, a marketing firm
that promoted public taste by getting well-known artists to design common
objects, the Minton version was first exhibited at the 1849 Birmingham
exhibition. Copelands copy appeared in 1852 and other versions followed.
Consumers continued to buy replicas for many years. Despite the warnings
of connoisseurs that the copies could never duplicate the original, the
Victorian middle class did not care if the slaves thighs were a
bit heavy or her head tilted too much to the left; the important consideration
was whether the form was sufficiently correct to study the general
proportions of the figure.9
Just owning a copy was enough to relive the dramatic moment of having
seen the original or, for those who had not seen it, to embrace its reputation.
Parian Porcelain Statuary in America
Despite the fact that little in the way of parian porcelain statuary was
made in America before 1870, there was plenty of parian to be had in the
shops and markets on this side of the Atlantic Ocean. The art press generated
most of the demand for it here, by manufacturers exhibits at fairs,
and in the shops of urban china and glass dealers. Both Minton and Copeland,
for example, showed parian statuary at the New York Crystal Palace Exhibition
of 1853. Both firms were awarded bronze medals for their parian, but it
was Copelands display that Horace Greeley described as having the
gems of their kind in the Exhibition.10
Prominent china and glass dealers in Americas large cities were
the primary purveyors of parian. Advertisements in newspapers and trade
publications provide the most information on what was available here.
Charles Ehrenfeldt of New York advertised 400 different figures
of various sizes by Copeland, Minton, and Wedgwood during the 1850s.
His offerings included John Bells Miranda, Hiram Powers
Greek Slave, a wide variety of political figures, popular personalities
such as Jenny Lind, literary figures such as Lord Byron and Charles Dickens,
and religious subjects.11
In 1851, Tyndale and Mitchell, Philadelphia china and glass dealers, advertised
James Wyatts Apollo, J. J. Pradiers Ondine,
Antonio Canovas Hebe, and Charles Cumberworths Indian
Girl and Negress, in addition to those subjects mentioned for
The United States Pottery Company of Bennington, Vermont, under the direction
of Christopher Webber Fenton also exhibited parian at the 1853 New York
Worlds Fair (fig. 3).
Although the largest proportion of this companys exhibit was earthenwares
with mottled brown glazes (called Rockingham), which were the mainstay
of the companys production, the firm also showed four figures, pitchers,
a clock case, and a sugar bowl in parian porcelain. Most of the wares
were said to be the work of English modelers John Harrison and Daniel
Greatbach who immigrated to America during the 1840s from the Staffordshire
potteries and worked in Bennington briefly. The pitchers are well-known
today from the numerous marked examples that survive; however, the figures
have yet to be identified with any certainty.13
Unique figure groups, one mounted on the top of the companys display,
and a bust of Fenton (fig. 4)
attributed to Greatbach, were also included in the exhibit. These are
preserved in the collection of the Bennington Museum (fig. 5).
The enthusiasm for sculpture generated through the parian copies shown
in exhibits at the regional, national, and international fairs that proliferated
after 1845 was not lost on American sculptors. Even if little parian was
actually made in America before 1870, American sculptors had their work
translated into this material by factories in England. Hiram Powers
Greek Slave was highly successful in England where the product was developed.
In Boston, on the other hand, between 1850 and 1880, retailers and entrepreneurs
commissioned or purchased models of popular subjects from young, ambitious
American sculptors such as Thomas Ball, Martin Milmore, and Daniel Chester
French. Plaster models from these sculptors were sold to investors along
with the rights to reproduce them. The investors then secured the copyright
in the United States and arranged for an English pottery or American foundry
to make copies in porcelain or metal.
Thomas Ball (18191911) describes his experiences with reproducing
small-scale sculpture in his autobiography.14
Early on he tried to profit from the reproductions entirely on his own.
However, he found the details of copyrighting and producing to be cumbersome
and the fact of pirating to be discouraging. In 1853, on the eve of Daniel
Websters death, Ball modeled a small, reproducible figure of the
statesman (fig. 6). The
first day it was seen, he later recalled, I had the very tempting
offer of five hundred dollars for the model and the right to multiply
it. I accepted the offer with avidity, feeling relieved from any further
responsibility. The shrewd art-dealer who bought it must have made five
thousand dollars out of it, at the very least. But I could not have done
it; so I never murmured, and was only too delighted at the success, and
to receive later from the Charitable Mechanics Association a first-class
gold medal for it.15
Ball must have been impressed with his relative success at this venture,
and perhaps even discussed it frequently. Two of his students eventually
followed the same track.
Martin Milmore (18441883) was apprenticed to Ball from 1858 to 1862
and became Bostons leading sculptor when Ball left for Italy. Between
1860 and 1865, Milmore modeled several pieces that were translated into
parian, including a figure of Massachusetts governor John Andrew published
by Jones, McDuffee and Stratton, a Boston china and glass dealer (fig.
7). Busts of Governor Andrew
and Abraham Lincoln are also signed by Milmore, but the publisher is unknown.
John Rogers (18291904) made his living by reproducing his own sculpture.
Believing that sculpture should be understood and enjoyed, Rogers used
American subject matter and made it in an inexpensive material in order
to make sculpture available to many people. His subjects, rendered in
profuse detail, were drawn from history, literature, domestic life, and
the Civil War soldiers life. His 208 designs were reproduced in
more than 80,000 plaster copies. Although all of his designs were made
in plaster, a few have also been found in parian porcelain. Wounded
to the Rear One More Shot (fig. 8)
and The Wounded Scout appear in the factory record of Robinson & Leadbeater,
a pottery in Stoke-on-Trent, England, that specialized in parian production.
The circumstances of the manufacture of these groups in England are currently
unknown, but the assignment to Robinson & Leadbeater is based on the
factory record of about 1885 now preserved in the Winterthur Museum library.16
Daniel Chester French (18501931) was also a student of Thomas Ball,
working in the sculptors studio in Italy beginning in 1876. Furthermore,
French and Milmore were close friends. Frenchs most vivid work,
The Angel of Death and the Sculptor (18911892), is a memorial
to Milmore, who died at a young age. Between 1871 and 1874, French, like
Ball and Milmore before him, modeled several pieces that were translated
into parian porcelain. However, Frenchs contributions were not figures
of historically important politicians, but rather sentimental ornaments
suited to mid-Victorian tastes that favored sweet stories and anthropomorphic
attributes. Subjects included owls, dogs, and scenes from popular fiction.
Most of these groups also functioned as match safes. Match Making, published
by Clark, Plympton & Company of Boston, features a pair of owls nuzzling
softly on a branch. Its pendant, a single owl, was called Reveries of
a Bachelor. Both were made by Robinson & Leadbeater of Stoke (shapes
249 and 249Q¿). Similarly, Imposing on Good Nature, also
produced by Robinson & Leadbeater (shape 230), shows a large lounging
dog being pestered by a small dog. In its pendant, Retribution (shape
231), the large dog is standing and has pinned his tiny playmate to the
floor. Joes Farewell, also copyrighted by Clark, Plympton &
Company and made by Robinson & Leadbeater (shape 235), interprets
the passage in Charles Dickens Barnaby Rudge, in which Joe Willet
calls on Dolly Varden, with whom he was smitten, to say goodbye for an
indefinite period of time (fig. 9).
The similarity of this group in particular with the work of John Rogers
was no accident. French openly admired Rogers work and even promoted
its historical and artistic importance in later years.17
The work of Henry F. Libby (18501933), a Boston dentist and amateur
sculptor, can also be considered in this group. In the early days of his
dental practice during the late 1870s, Libby modeled small sentimental
sculpture groups and had them produced by Robinson & Leadbeater of
Stoke. Among these are Young Columbus (fig. 10),
which features the explorer as a boy dreamer, and Conquering Jealousy,
dated 1878, which features a sweet young girl mediating between a large
dog and a puppy.18
After Libbys dental practice grew, he seems to have abandoned sculpture
as a creative outlet. His interest turned to natural history, and in 1912
he founded the Libby Museum in Wolfeboro, New Hampshire.
American Sculptors Work in American Clay
The relationship established between sculptors and manufacturers for the
production of parian porcelain statuary in mid-nineteenth-century England
and Boston provided the model for the development of the art porcelain
industry in the United States. Parian manufactured here in the 1870s was
modeled mostly by American and European sculptors, although the reputations
of these men today are based mostly on their work in clay. Ott & Brewer
found Isaac Broome, the Union Porcelain Works hired Karl Mueller, John
D. Parry modeled figures, and W. H. Edge modeled busts for the New York
A Canadian by birth, Isaac Broome (18351922) was trained in the
United States at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and worked
with Thomas Crawford on the statues for the pediment of the U.S. Capitol
in 1855/56. In 1860, after having spent a few years in a studio in Rome,
Broome became an academician at the Pennsylvania Academy and taught there
until 1863. His assignment for Ott & Brewer of Trenton, New Jersey,
was to create exhibition pieces in parian porcelain for the 1876 Centennial
Exhibition in Philadelphia and models for smaller sculpture that could
be purchased by the public. Large vases dedicated to baseball, fashion,
and antiquity, busts of political leaders including George Washington,
Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses Grant, Samuel Tilden, Thomas Hendricks, Rutherford
Hayes, James Blaine and others, and brackets celebrating the centennial
were among the more than twenty models that Broome created in the year
or so before the fair when he was working in Ott & Brewers shops.
Of these many models, the Baseball Vase is the most important (fig.
11). Western sculpture
in general was already moving away from the classical style that had prevailed
since the early 1800s, but the subject here is blatantly contemporary
and entirely American. The National League had been formed in 1875 and
the topic of baseball was on everyones lips. The pair of covered
vases that flanked Ott & Brewers Philadelphia display in the
ceramics area of the Manufacturers Building attracted so much attention
that one was moved to the Art Gallery of Memorial Hall a month after the
fair opened in 1876 (figs. 1215).
This is the first American-made ceramic object that was officially given
the status of art.
Karl Muellers models for the Union Porcelain Works were more nostalgic
in nature than Broomes. Mueller (18201887) and his brother,
Nicholas, were trained in metalsmithing in Koblenz, Germany, and immigrated
to America about 1850. In New York they modeled and cast small-scale sculpture
and clock cases in metal. In 1874, Karl was hired to create models for
Union Porcelain Works display at the upcoming Centennial Exhibition.
The Blacksmith is a larger version of the same figure that Mueller
had patented in 1868 and produced in white metalxix (fig. 16).
Like Rogers with his groups, Mueller in his portrayal of the blacksmith
seeks to monumentalize the labor of the common American while recording
the details of his life and craft.
James Carr (18201904) operated his New York City Pottery beginning
in 1853, but did not make parian porcelain statuary until the early 1870s.
John D. Parry (18451945), a native of Vermont and resident of Boston
and Rome, modeled the seated figure of Charles Sumner in the early 1870s
for Carr (fig. 17). He
may also be the sculptor for the group Meeting of Jacob and Rachel
(fig. 18), which won high
praise when it was exhibited at the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia
and the American Institute Fair the same year in New York City. In 1876,
Carr employed a sculptor to develop additional models for the Centennial
Exhibition. W. H. Edge, previously identified with the ceramic industry
in Trenton, modeled busts for the display, including George Washington,
Ulysses Grant, and perhaps Carr himself (figs. 19,
20). Carrs pottery
received a gold medal for its parian at the Centennial Exhibition, and
subsequent exhibits of the potterys parian received similar high
praise. Indeed, one writer in 1876 compared Carrs work to Copelands.21
Thomas Ball and Daniel Chester French noted in their respective remembrances
that good profits were made by entrepreneurs claiming a sculptors
hand as the source for the figure or group. A Minton figure of The
Greek Slave, for example, was priced at £1.105 in 1917, but
was produced at a cost of 3/6d. Mintons Dorothea, which was
enormously popular over a long period of time, cost the consumer two guineas
in London at the time when most workers were bringing home wages of less
than £1 per week.22
Similarly, Ott & Brewer asked china dealers to pay $250 in the 1880s
for the Baseball Vase, an enormous price in its day but still less
than what the retail customer would have been charged. It is probably
safe to say that no one ever paid this huge price, but the wholesale cost
of $32.00 per dozen for small busts of George Washington left plenty of
room for profit while making the sculpture available to a middle-class
In America, the success of parian in terms of the publicity it generated
encouraged the development of the art porcelain industry. Until the centennial,
American-made ceramics were notable primarily for their durability and
cheapness, first as redware pots, then as utilitarian stoneware and yellow
ware, and finally as white ironstone tableware. Attempts to make finer
porcelain wares from the late eighteenth century on had been foiled by
the high cost of American labor unprotected by import duties on wares
from abroad. Furthermore, the reputations of English and French manufacturers
continued to plague American firms who often disguised the domestic origin
of their wares by imprinting them with marks that looked English.
When American sculptors began modeling for parian porcelain, the subject
matter they chose had a classically American character. Daniel Webster,
John Andrew, Charles Sumner, George Washington, Ulysses Grant, and especially
baseball were subjects of interest to many Americans. Although there had
been the stray figure of Washington sent over from England by the Staffordshire
potters, the wide array of American politicians and popular subjects chosen
by the American sculptors was far more nationalistic.
The reaction to American parian was encouraging to the fledgling American
pottery industry. Ott & Brewer, for example, went on to develop an
American version of Irish Belleek in the early 1880s that established
a reputation for fine art porcelain made in Trenton. The Willets Manufacturing
Company expanded production there, and the success of both firms in marketing
fine porcelain encouraged Walter Scott Lenox in 1889 to open the first
studio for making and decorating art porcelain exclusively in the United
The subjects and style of parian changed between 1845 and 1885 as sculpture
developed from the early neoclassicism that favored ideal figures and
antique replicas to the later Victorian preference for sentimental story-telling,
but the medium did not survive changing ceramic fashions or the general
movement toward owning original art and decorating with handmade objects.
Trade advertisements of the 1880s favored majolica, a molded earthenware
painted in glossy brightly colored glazes. Unlike white parian, majolicas
colorful style incorporated all the popular Japanese motifs and naturalistic
subjects that appealed to the fashionable homemaker.
At the same time, the late nineteenth-century desire for honest use of
materials belied the idea central to parians popularity, that clay
could imitate marble that mimicked drapery. The aesthetic movement followed
by the arts and crafts movement in England and America saw parian as one
of the gew-gaws that was to be stripped from the parlor. The old idea
that a reproduction represented the original work of art in a positive
way passed from the scene, although there were at least a few who were
sorry to see it disappear. Why is it we get so few parian imitations
of the works of the great masters now? whined a commentator for
the London Pottery Gazette in 1884. We fear it is the patrons
which are wanted, not the will or ability to do on the part of our manufacturers.
One of the things aestheticism did for us was to make it vulgar to have
copies in art. . . . It is a mistake to imagine that art only exists in
the most cultured or the most wealthy. . . . Of all exclusiveness, exclusiveness
in art is the most to be lamented.24
Parian porcelain statuary has been in the attic for more than a century,
victim of the modern attitudes that give value to original products of
the artists hand, but not to objects that replicate, even faithfully,
the finished work of art. Parian is not art and never was meant to be.
But its characterthe product of an alliance between artists and
manufacturerslaid the foundations for the twentieth-century embrace
of design as a democratic art form available to everyone and the centurys
active market for the work of studio ceramists.